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Flashcards in EXAM 1 Deck (90):
1

Adult Chain of Survival

Recognition & Activation
CPR
Defibrilation
Advanced life support
post-cardiac arrest care

2

Pediatric Chain of Survival

Prevention
Bystander CPR
Activation
Advanced life support
post-cardiac arrest care

3

1790

Earliest documented EMS (emergency Medical Service).

French were transporting wounded soldiers

4

1966

National Highway Safety Act (NHSA) charged US Department of Transportation (DOT) with developing EMS standards

5

Components of EMS

Patient
Citizen calls 911
911 dispatcher
First responders
EMTs
Emergency department staff
Allied health staff

6

Levels of EMS training (lowest to highest)

Emergency Medical Responder (EMR)
Emergency Medical Technician (EMT)
Advanced Emergency Medical Tech (EMT-A, or AEMT)
Paramedic (EMT-P)

7

Roles & Responsibilities of EMT

Personal safety
Safety of crew, patient, & bystanders
Patient assessment
Patient care
Lifting and moving
Transport
Transfer care
Patient advocacy

8

EMT Personal Traits

Pleasant
Sincere
Cooperative
Resourceful
Self-starter
Emotionally stable
Able to lead
Neat
Of good moral character & respectful
In control of personal habits
Controlled in conversation
Able to listen
Nonjudgemental and fair

9

1970

National Registry of EMTs was founded

10

Quallity Improvement (QI)

Process of continuous selfe-review with the purpose of identifying and correcting aspects of the system that require improvement.

11

Steps in Quality Improvement

Preparing carefully written documents
Becoming involved in the quality process
Obtaining feedback from patients & hospital staff
Maintaining your equipment
Continuing education

12

Medical Director

Physician who assumes ultimate responsibility for the patient-care aspects of the EMS system

13

Medical Direction

Oversight of the patient-care aspects of the EMS system by the Medical Director

14

Protocols

List of steps, such as assessments and interventions, to be taken in different situaions. Protocols are developed by the Medical Director of and EMS system.

15

Standing Orders

Policy or protocol issued by a Medical Director that authorizes EMTs and others to perform particular skills in certain situations.

16

Designated Agent

An EMT or other person authrized by a Medical Director to give medications and provide emergency care

17

On-line medical direction

Orders given directly by the on-duty physician to and EMT in the field by radio or telephone

18

Off-line medical directions

standing orders issued by the Medical Director that allow EMTs to give certain medications and perform certain procedures without speaking to the Medical Direcrot or another physician.

19

EMS assessment standards set by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)

Regulation of Policy
Resource Management
Human Resources & Training
Transportation
Facilities
Communications
Public information & education
Medical direction
Trauma systems
Evaluation

20

EMT healthy habits

Maintain solid personal relationships
Exercise
Sleep
Eat right
Limit alcohol & caffeine intake
See physician regularly
Keep up-to-date with vaccines

21

Pathogens

Organisms that cause infection such as viruses and bacteria

22

Standard Precautions

Strict form of infection control that is based on the assumption that all blood and other body fluids are infectious

23

PPE (Personal Protective Equipment)

Equipment that protects the EMS worker from infection and/or exposure to dangers of rescue operations

24

Contamination

Introductions of dangerous chemicals, disease, or infectious materials

25

Forms of PPE

Gloves
Hand washing (includes alcohol-based hand cleaners)
Eye & face Protection
Masks
Gowns

26

OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)

Federal administration that issued guidelines for the protection of workers whose jobs may expose them to infectious deseases.

27

Ryan White CARE Act

Establishes procedures by which emergency response workers may find out if they have been exposed to life-threatening infectiouse diseases.

28

Stress

State of physical and/or psychological arousal to a stimulus

29

Critical Incident

Any situation that triggers a strong emotional response

30

Acute Stress Reaction

Occurs simultaneously with or shortly after the critical incident

31

Delayed Stress Reaction (also known as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD))

Occurs at any time days to years following a critical incident

32

Cumulative Stress Reaction (also known as burnout)

Occurs as a result of prolonged recurring stressors in our work or private lives

33

MCI (multiple-casualty incident)

Emergency involving multiple patients

34

Calls With High Potential of Stress

MCIs
Calls involving infants or children
Severe injuries
Abuse and neglect
Death of coworker

35

Signs & Symptoms of Stress

Irritability w/ family, friends, & coworkers
Inability to concentrate
Difficulty sleeping
Loss of appetite
Loss of sexual interest
Anxiety
Indecisiveness
Guilt
Isolation
Loss of interest at work

36

Ways to Deal With Stress

Healthy diet
Exercise
Devote time to relaxing

37

Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM)

Comprehensive system that includes education and resources to both prevent stress and to deal with stress appropriately when it occurs

38

Stages of dealing with death (in order)

Denial "Not me"
Anger "Why me?"
Bargaining "Ok, but first let me..."
Depression "Ok, but I haven't..."
Acceptance "Ok, I'm not afraid"

39

Hazardous material incident

Release of harmful substance into the environment

40

Decontamination

Removal or cleansing of dangerous chemichals and other dangerous or infectious materials

41

Different Types of Dangerous Scenes

Hazardous Material
Terrorist
Rescue
Violence

42

Body Mechanics

Proper use of the body to facilitate lifting and moving and prevent injury

43

Examples of Good Body Mechanics

Position feet properly
Use legs to lift
Never turn or twist
Do not compensate when lifting with one hand
Keep weight close to your body
Use stair chair when carrying patient on stairs

44

Different Types of Moves

Non-urgent move
Urgent move
Emergency move

45

What can call for Emergency Move?

Scene is hazardous
Care or life-threatening conditions requires repositioning
You must reach othe patients

46

What calls for Urgent Move

Required treatment can only be performed if patient is moved
Factors as scene cause patient to decline

47

Different Types of Emergency Drags

Clothes drag
Incline drag (always head first)
Shoulder drag
Foot drag
Firefighter drag
Blanket drag

48

Different Types of Emergency Carries

One-rescuer assist carry
Two-rescuer assist carry
Cradle carry
Pack strap carry
Piggyback carry
Firefighter's carry
Firefighter's carry with assist

49

2 Types of Stretchers

Manual stretcher
Power stretcher

50

Critical Elements of Infection Contol Plan Required by Title 29

Infection exposure control plan
Adequate education & training
Hepatitis B vaccination
PPE
Methods of control
Housekeeping
Labeling
Postexposure evaluation and follow-up

51

Direct Carry

Method of transferring a patient from bed to strecher in which two or more recuers curl the patient to their chests, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the stretcher

52

Direct Ground Lift

Method of lifting and carrying a patient from ground level to stretcher during which two or more rescuers kneel, curl the patient to their chests, stand, then reverse the process to lower the patient to the strecher.

53

Different Types of Stretchers

Power stretcher
Portable stretcher
Basket strether
Scoop stretcher
Flexible stretcher
Stair chair

54

Bariatric

Having to do with patients who are significantly overweight or obese

55

Different ways of moving patients to stretcher who do not have suspected spine injury

Extremity lift
Direct ground lift
Draw-sheet method
direct carry

56

Scope of Practice

Set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the scope or extent and limits of the EMT's job.

57

Standard of Care

for an EMT providing care for a specific patient in a specific situation, the care that would be expected to be provided by an EMT with similar training when caring for a patient in a similar situation

58

Consent

Permission from the patient for care or other action by the EMT

59

Expressed Consent

Consent given by adults who are of legal age and metally competent to make a rational decision in regard to their medical well-being

60

Implied Consent

The consent it is presumed a patiend or patient's parent or guardian would give if they could.

61

In Loco Parentis

In place of the parents, indicating a person who may give consent for care of a child when the parents are not present or able to give consent

62

Conditions For Refusal of Care

Patient must be legally able to consent
Patient must be mentally competent and oriented
Patient must be fully informed
Patient will be asked to sign "release" form

63

Liability

Being held legally responsible

64

Assault

Placing a person in fear of bodily harm

65

Battery

Causing bodily harm to or restraining a person

66

DNR (do not resuscitate) order

Legal document, usually signed by the patient and his physician, which states taht the patient has a terminal illness and does not wish to prolong life through resuscitative efforts

67

Advance Directive

DNR order; instrictions written in advance of an event

68

Negligence

A finding of failure to act properly in a situation in which there was a duty to act, that needed care as would reasonably be expected of the EMT was not provided, and that harm was caused to the patient as a result

69

Tort

Civil, not criminal offence an action or injury caused by negligence from which a lawsuit may arise

70

Res Ipsa Loquitur

Latin term meaning "the thing speaks for itself"

71

Circumstances Associated W/ Finding of Negligence

EMT had duty to act
EMT did not provide standard of care
There was a Proximate Causation

72

Proximate Causation

Concept that the damages to the patient were result of action or inaction of the EMT

73

Duty to Act

Obligation to provide care to a patient

74

Abandonment

Leaving a patient after care has been initiated and before the patient has been transferred to someone with equal or greater medical training

75

Good Samaritan Laws

Series of laws, varying in each state, designed to provide limited legal protection for citizens and some health care personnel when they are adminstering emergency care.

76

HIPPA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act)

Federal law protecting the privacy of patient-specific health care information and providing the patient with control over how this information is used and distributed

77

Libel

False or injurious information in written form

78

Slander

False or injurious information stated verbally

79

Safe Haven Law

Law taht permits a person to drop-off an infant or child at a police, fire, or EMS station or to deliver ther infant or child to any available public safety personnel. The intent of the law is to protect children who may otherwise be abandoned or harmed

80

Evidence At a Crime Scene

Condition of the scene
Patient
Fingerprints and footprints
Microscopic evidence

81

How To Preserve Evidence

Remember what you touch
Minimize you impact on the scene
Work with the police

82

Crime Scene

Location where a crime has been committed or any place that evidence relating to a crime may be found

83

Scene size-up

Steps taken when approaching the scene of an emergency call:
Checking scen safety
Taking standard precautions
Noting the MOI (mechanism of injury) or NOI (nature of illness)
Number of patients
Deciding what resources to call for

84

Danger Zone

Area around the wreckage of a vehicle collision or other incident within which special safety precautions should be taken.

85

Signs of Danger from Violence

Fighting or loud voices
Weapons visible or in use
Signs of alcohol or other drug use
Unusual silence
Knowledge of prior violence

86

Different Types of Vehicle Collisions

Head-on Collisions
Rear-end Collisions
Side-impact Collisions
Rollover Collisions
Rotational impact Collisions

87

Penetrating trauma

Injury caused by an object that passes through the skin or other body tissue

88

Blunt-force Trauma

injury caused by a blow that does not penetrate the skin or other body tissues

89

Index of suspicion

Awareness that there may be injuries

90

NOI (Nature of illness)

What is medically wrong with a patient