exam 1: ch 1 and 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in exam 1: ch 1 and 2 Deck (101):
1

anything that occupies space and has mass; the physical material of the universe

matter

2

a characteristic that gives a sample of matter its unique identity

property

3

a substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances by chemical means

element

4

the smallest representative particle of an element

atom

5

a chemical combination of two or more atoms

molecule

6

matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties

pure substance

7

substance composed of 2 or more elements united chemically in definite proportions

compound

8

combinations of 2 or more substances in which each substance retains its chemical identity

mixture

9

the observation that the elemental composition of a compound is always the same

law of constant composition (law of definite proportions)

10

can be observed without changing the identity and composition of the substance

physical property

11

describe the way a substance may change, or react, to form other substances (ie flammability)

chemical property

12

properties that do not depend on amount of sample being examined (ie temperature, melting pt)

intensive property

13

properties that depend of amt of sample (mass, volume)

extensive property

14

change that occur with no change in chemical composition

physical change

15

processes in which one or more substance are converted into other substances

chemical change (chemical reaction)

16

an explanation of the general causes of certain phenomena, with considerable evidence or facts to support it

theory

17

a concise verbal statement or mathematical equation that summarizes a broad variety of observations and experiences

scientific law

18

a tentative explanation of a series of observations or of a natural law

hypothesis

19

the general process of advancing scientific knowledge by making experimental observations and by formulating hypotheses, theories and laws

scientific method

20

tera (T)

1012

21

giga (G)

109

22

mega (M)

106

23

kilo (k)

103

24

hecto (h)

102

25

deca (da)

101

26

deci (d)

10-1

27

centi (c)

10-2

28

milli (m)

10-3

29

micro (μ)

10-6

30

nano (n)

10-9

31

pico (P)

10-12

32

femto (f)

10-15

33

atto (a)

10-18

34

zepto (z)

10-21

35

a measure of the amount of material in an object

mass

36

1 kg = ___ lb

2.2

37

0°c = ___ k

273.15

38

freezing point of water

0°c or 32°f

39

boiling pt of water

100°c or 212°f

40

formula for volume

mass / density

41

formula for mass

volume x density

42

formula for density

mass / volume

43

numbers whose values hold some uncertainty

inexact numbers

44

a measure of how closely individual measurements agree with one another

precision

45

how closely individual measurements agree with the correct or "true" value

accuracy

46

all digits of a measured quantity, including 1 uncertain one

significant figures

47

zeros between nonzero digits are _____

significant

48

zeros at the ____ of a no are never significant

beginning

49

zeros at the ____ of a number are significant if the number contains a decimal pt

end

50

the ____ of a cube is its length cubed (length)3

volume

51

a fraction whose numerator and denominator are the same quanitity expressed in different units

conversion factor

52

matter exists in ___ physical states

3 (gas, liquid, solid)

53

homogeneous mixtures are called _____

solutions

54

formula for faerenheit

1.8c + 32

55

the basic building blocks of matter

atoms

56

smallest units of an element that can combine with other elements

atoms

57

atoms are composed of even smaller particles called ______

subatomic particles

58

thomson's experiments on the behavior of _____ in magnetic and electric fields led to the discovery of the electron and allowed its charged-to-mass ratio to be measure.

cathode rays

59

the spontaneous emission of radiation by atoms

radioactivity

60

rutherford's studies of how thin metal foils scatter a particles led to the _____ of the atom, showing that the atom has a dense positively charged nucleus

nuclear model

61

atoms have a nucleus that contain ____ + _____

protons, neutrons

62

_____ move in the space around the nucleus

electrons

63

the magnitude of the charge of the electron, 1.602 x 10-19 C, is called the _________

electronic charge

64

the masses of the atoms are usually expressed in terms of _______

atomic mass units (amu)

65

the dimensions of atoms are often expressed in units of ______

angstroms 

66

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

atomic number

67

the sum of the number of protons and neutrons

mass number

68

atoms of the same element that differ in mass number 

isotopes

69

the ____ of an element can be calculated relative abundances and masses of that element's isotopes

atomic weight

70

the _______ provides the most direct and accurate means of experimentally measuring atomic (and molecular) weights

mass spectrometer

71

an arrangement of the elements in order of increasing atomic number

periodic table

72

elements with similar properties are placed in _____ columns

vertical

73

the elements in a column are known as a ______

group

74

the elements in a horizontal row are known as a _____

period

75

comprise the majority of the elements, and dominate the left side and middle of the periodic table

metals

76

located on the upper right side of the periodic table

nonmetals

77

elements that form a line that seperates nonmetals and metals

metalloids

78

atoms can combine to form _____

molecules

79

compounds composed of molecules (______) usually contain only nonmetallic elements

molecular compounds

80

 a molecule that contains two atoms

diatomic molecule

81

the composition of a substance is given by its _______

chemical formula

82

a molecular substance can be represented by its _______, which gives the relative numbers of atoms of each kind

empirical formula

83

a chemical formula that indicates the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a substance

molecular formula

84

_____ formulas show the order in which the atoms in a molecule are connected

structural

85

atoms can either gain or lose electrons, forming charged particles called _____.

ions

86

metals tend to ____ electrons, forming ____ charged ions (____)

lose.... positively... (cations)

87

nonmetals tend to ____ electrons, forming ____ charged ions (____)

gain.... negatively... (anions)

88

because ______ are electrically neutral, containing both cations and anions, they usually contain both metallic and nonmetallic elements

ionic compounds

89

atoms that are joined together, as in a molecule, but carry a net charge

polyatomic ions

90

the chemical formulas used for ionic compounds are _____ formulas, which can be written readily if the charges of the ions are known

empirical

91

the total positive charge of the cations in an _____ ______ equals the total negative charge of the anions

ionic compound

92

the set of rules for naming chemical compounds

chemical nomenclature

93

in naming an ___ ____, the cation is named first and then the anion

ionic compound

94

_____ _____ have names ending in -ide.

monatomic anions

95

______ _______ containing oxygen and another element (oxyanions) have names ending in -ate or -ite.

polyatomic anions

96

the study of compounds that contain carbon

organic chemistry

97

the simplest class of organic molecules is the _____, which contain only carbon and hydrogen 

hydrocarbons

98

hydrocarbons in which each carbon atom is attached to four other atoms

alkanes

99

a compound in which an H atom of a hydrocarbon is replaced by an OH functional group

alcohol

100

compounds with the same molecular formula but a different bonding arrangement of their constituent atoms

isomers

101