Exam 1: Ch 8 - Acidosis/Alkalosis Flashcards Preview

Pathophysiology > Exam 1: Ch 8 - Acidosis/Alkalosis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1: Ch 8 - Acidosis/Alkalosis Deck (16):
1

metabolic acidosis

low pH b/c of low bicarb (increased MV to decrease CO2 by overbreathing)

2

causes of metabolic acidosis

increased production of metabolic acids (keto/lactic acidosis), which increases anion gap

diarrhea (bicarb loss)

acid ingestion (ASA)

poisoning with ethylene glycol or methanol

kidney disease

3

symptoms of metabolic acidosis

Kussmaul breathing

weakness and fatigue

decreased cardiac function when pH reaches ~7.1

4

treatment of metabolic acidosis

correct cause

NaHCO3 may be useful

5

respiratory acidosis

low pH because increased CO2 (increased bicarb to compensate)

6

causes of respiratory acidosis

low minute volume: chronic in COPD (bicarb also elevated), acute in narcotic OD and neuromuscular disease (bicarb normal)

inc. CO2 production (fever, sepsis, burns)

7

symptoms of respiratory acidosis

depends on cause

hypoxia

neuro: headache, blurred vision

coma b/c CO2 narcosis

8

treatment of respiratory acidosis

improve ventilation

9

metabolic alkalosis

high pH b/c high bicard (decreased MV to increase CO2 to compensate)

10

causes of metabolic alkalosis

excessive intake of antacids

loss of H+ from vomiting or NG suction

ECF loss (low GFR and RAA system activation --> sodium and bicarb retention)

11

symptoms of metabolic alkalosis

hypoventilation

excitability

asymtomatic

12

treatment of metabolic alkalosis

fix underlying cause

correct fluid and electrolyte abnormalities

13

respiratory alkalosis

pH is high b/c low CO2 (lower bicarb to compensate)

14

causes of respiratory alkalosis

high MV: central or peripheral stimulation

mechanical ventilation

anxiety

pain

15

symptoms of respiratory alkalosis

low brain blood flow --> dizziness

tetany b/c increased Ca binding to protein

16

treatment of respiratory alkalosis

correct cause (hypoxia)

rebreathing for anxiety