Flashcards in Exam 1 Materials Deck (155):
What are three important dates during week one of development? What happens on each day?
Day 1- Zygote formed after fertilization in ampulla of uterine tube
Day 4- Morula enters Uterus
Day 6- implantation of blastocyst begins
When is the preembryonic, embryonic, and fetal periods of prenatal development? What happens in each period?
Weeks 1 & 2: Pre-Embryonic. Fertilization & implantation
Weeks 3-8; Embryonic. Germ layers developed & organogenesis.
Weeks 9-38: Fetal. Growth & maturation of organ systems
What period and week do most birth defects appear? Why?
embryonic period 3-8 weeks b/c its the period of organogenesis
approximately___% of embryos are spontaneously _______ in the ________period
50%, aborted, pre-embryonic period
_________account for ____% of spontaneous abortions and ____% of birth defects and develop primarily during ______ stage of _________.
Chromosomal aberrations, 25%, 12%, Meiosis, gametogenesis.
When does M1 begin in female oogenesis? When does it end and M2 begin? when does M2 end? what is the product of oogenesis?
M1 ends (completed at ovulation) M2 arrested until ovulation.
M2 ends at fertilization.
produces 1 oocyte, 3 polar bodies (not viable).
What is capacitation? How many capacitated sperm reach oocyte?
7 hour conditioning of sperm where the glycoprotein coat on sperm head is removed to facilitate fertilization. 300 to 500 reach oocyte
What percent of couples are infertile and why?
15-30%. Infecction, low sperm count, motility issues, ovulation disorders, cysts, fibroids
MITOTIC (not meiotic) nondisjunction during cleavage. Generally less severe mosaic down syndrome.
Week 2 events? What are primary nutrition sources? When is uteroplacental circulation fully established?
Uteroplacental exchange begins. Syncytiotrophoblast invaginates uterine wall. Primary nutrition sources are uterine gland secretions then becomes the uteroplacental exchange of vascular lacunae
Implantation bleeding. What secretes hCG? what cascade sustains embryonic growth? What day levels detect w/ prego test?
can be mistaken for menstrual bleeding and effect age estimates. Syncytiotrophoblast secretes hCG.
hCG stimulates progesterone to increase uterine blood flow to sustain embryonic growth.
hCG linked to hyperemesis gravidium
what causes hydatidiform mole? What called if malignant? What sign exists for mole?
embryoblast absent/incomplete and trophoblast continues to function/implant/grow without growth regulators from embryoblast and forms large tumor. choriocarcinoma if malignant. Elevated hCG.
epiblast cavitation forms what cavity? What is the bilaminar disk?
amniotic cavity. embryoblast divides into hypoblast and epiblast then cavity forms in epiblast to form amniotic cavity. hypoblast becomes PYS.
Hypoblast development? PYS,EM,CC,SYS
hypoblast migrates out to line the primary yoke sac, then differentiates further to form the EM: extraembryonic mesoderm. Cavitation of the EM creates a CC: Chorionic cavity which compresses the primary yolk sac into becoming a secondary yolk sac.
Ectoderm gives rise to what?
Surface ectoderm-> epidermis (hair, nails, glands)
Neuro ectoderm -> NEURAL TUBE-> CNS
NEURAL CREST->PNS and more
Endoderm turns into what organs?
epithelial lining of GI & respiratory systems
Mesoderm turns into what ?
Paraxial, intermediate, lateral plate Turn into what?
1. Sclerotome -> vertebrae & ribs
2. Dermatome -> dermis
3. Myotome -> skeletal muscle
Intermediate -> Urinary & reproductive systems
1. Parietal --> CT, Cartilage, bones & limbs
2. Visceral -->Gi & Respiratory organs (except epithelium)
Identify Neural fold, Neural Groove, Neural tube, notochord, somites
Neural fold- speed humps
Neural groove almost barreled
Neural Tube- doughnut
H&E, PAS, Trichrome, silver, orcein, Sudan red, osmic acid Stains
HE- Hematoxylin blue, eosin red
TRICHROME- Collagen fibers blue/green
SILVER- reticular fibers/collagen- BLACK
ORCEIN- Elastic fibers brown/black
SudanRED-lipids red, OSMIC ACID-lipids Black
What happens at week 10, 12, 15, and 24-28 weeks?
10- swallowing & urine formation (important for GI)
12- long bone ossification centers formed
12- external genitals visible w/ ultrasound
15- respiratory movements
24-28- sound & light recognition
What do you use Ultrasound for monitoring? What measurements made? when can you use it?
Fetal weight, size, age, developmental defects, nutritional deficiencies.circulation. CRL, Biparietal diameter (around crown), AC, (ab circ). FL. use it after 5 weeks
Estimated Fetal Weight
Small for Gestational Age-> low EFW for age but normal weight for the size of fetus
Low EFW for age, low EFW for size is a result of what two possible things? how much more likely is mortality?
Intrauterine growth restriction
In utero growth retardation (IUGR)
30X more likely mortality
fFN Test? what does it assess? how? when?
fetal fibronectin test. Assesses preterm delivery risk. by taking vaginal swab for placental adhesive glycoproteins and is reliable between weeks 22-34. Preterm skin is red/wrinkled paucity of dermal ct
What test do you use for RDS? what should you see? what else can you use if water breaks?
lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio test. Lecithin should rise relative to sphingomyelin of 2:1 by 34th week = low rds. can use vaginal swab for ACM rupture
What types of maternal serum screening? what used for?
a-fetoprotein: neural tube defects, down syndrome (common used)
hCG: molar pregnancy, choriocarcinoma, ectopic pregnancy, down syndrome
Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA): karyotyping 7+weeks not reliable. synscitiotrophoblast cells used?
CVS, AFT, what, when, how. Which is better?
Chorionic villus sampling: biopsy of chorionic villus w/ needle. 10-14 weeks, higher risk than aft, used for Karyotyping
Amniocentesis, amniotic fluid test: sample amnionic fluid w/ needle. 14-20 weeks (adequate fluid). Used for karyotyping, fetal metabolites, proteins, hormones. low risk
percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling- detect/treat fetal blood disorders (anemia) or administer blood transfusion or meds.
Fetoscopy- invasive high risk, penetrates amnionic cavity.
needle transvaginal to peritoneal cavity, invasive, rare; used to detect ruptured tubal pregnancy (now they just use ultrasound and surgery)
Dilation and curettage (DC)
dialation of cervix and removal of endometrium (scraping/suction). Used for miscarriage, molar pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage.
Chorionic villi floats in saline.
Tocodynamometer TOCO. what used with?
Pressure monitor on abdomen to detect uterine contractions. contractions & heart rate used together to estimate adequate fetal oxygen levels
ACM? ABS? PROM?
amniochorionic membrane - fused- water break
Amniotic band syndrome with premature repturing of the ACM.
Amnionic fluid. Function. Composition. origin. fetal circulation. maternal circulation. Amniocentesis
protects (physical, infection, body temp, fluid homeostasis)
composed of (fetal cells, proteins, electrolytes)
Formed by fetal amniotic cells lining cavity, diffusion of maternal tissue fluid, fetal urination
swallowed, aspirated, absorbed skin
returns to mom uteroplacental xchng, excretion to amnion & diffused into maternal tissue
AFV. if high what does it mean? low?
amnionic fluid volume.
High afv -> means GI problems (AF not being swallowed)
Low afv-> means renal malformations (fetus not urinating) or
PROM. of ACM
Oligohydramnios (potter's ) sequence
clubbed feet & cranial anomalies due to compression.
Pulmonary hypoplasia (under-developed lungs) due to lack of fluid during respiratory movements
Placenta is made up of what layers?
Decidua basalis (maternal derived from endometrium)
Villous Chorion (from fetal chorion)
Plaental barrier transformation at 4 months fertilization age. What happens? What happens if the transformation fails?
cytotrophoblast cells detach and migrate to line the maternal arteries to INCREASE maternal BLOOD VESSELS and INCREASE BLOOD FLOW.
If fails: Preeclampsia: causes maternal hypertension/slowed fetal growth
Eclampsia- seizures, coma, death
Placenta acts like a membrane. What does it allow to pass or not to pass?
Blocks: large molecules, protein hormones, bacteria
Allows: gas, nutrient, waste, steroid hormones, antibodies, medications/drugs, viruses
What is it called when the placenta attaches to the myometrium? invades myometrium? penetrates myometrium?
Placenta ACCRETA: attaches uterus
Placenta INCRETA: invades uterus
Placenta PERCRETA: penetrates uterus
DZ twins? DCDA
fraternal twins; derived from two fertilized oocytes (unique dna). Each twin has its own everything and develops independently. ALWAYS HAS ITS OWN CHORION AND ITS OWN AMNION
MZ: DCDA, MCDA, MCMA
#trophoblasts = # chorions
Monozygotic twins- Identical.
DCDA-->2 cell zygote splits to form 2 blastocyts
MCDA-> one blastocyst w/ two embryoblasts
MCMA-> one blastocyst w/ one embryoblast
Conjoined, parasitic, vanishing, TTTS
conjoined: incomplete splitting of monozygotic twins
parasitic: asymmetrical conjoined monozygotic twins
vanishing: death of 1 fetus (common)
twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS): MONOCHORIONIC TWINS ONLY... donor has slow growth, recipient is loaded w/ fluid
What characteristics should you find in a PROTEIN SECRETING CELL? What is constitutive vs. regulative?
Nucleus, Rough ER (make proteins), Golgi (package and ship), Secretory vesicle (exocytosis) mitochondria.
Constitutive is continuous; Regulative is for storage and release when signaled
What characteristics found in a STEROID SECRETING CELL?
SMOOTH ER (looks like cross sections of tubes), Lipid inclusions (droplets) cholesterol storage for steroid production
Vesicular mitochondria (tube-shaped cristae; for modifying steroids)
If I have blue or green fibers what stain and what type of tissue?
Trichrome & Collagen Fibers
What kind of stain for red/brown or black fibers? What kind of tissues?
Orcein for elastic fibers/ brown/red or black
What stains lipids red? black?
Sudan red, osmic acid-black
What stains reticular fibers and collagen? what color?
Silver stains collagen and reticular fibers BLACK
what stain used for glycoproteins and carbs?
What is urinary & reproductive system derived from?
INTERMEDIATE PLATE of the MESODERM that comes from EPIBLAST which comes from EMBRYOBLAST which comes from inner mass cells of the morula
What layer does skeletal muscle come from?
MYOTOME layer of PARAXIAL SOMITES of the MESODERM
What layer does the dermis come from?
DERMATOMES from PARAXIAL SOMITES from MESODERM
Where does vertebrae and ribs come from?
SCLEROTOME from PARAXIAL SOMITES from MESODERM
What three layers derived from PARAXIAL SOMITES?
SCLEROTOME (vertebrae/ribs), DERMATOME (dermis), MYOTOME (skeletal muscle).
Where is CT, Cartilage, bones of body wall and limb derived from?
PARIETAL from LATERAL PLATE from MESODERM
Where is GI & Respiratory organs derived from?
VISCERAL from LATERAL PLATE from MESODERM
Where is epithelial lining of Respiratory, GI, Urinary derived from?
What are the three layers of mesoderm
PARAXIAL SOMITES- INTERMEDIATE- LATERAL PLATE
Where is epidermis derived from?
SURFACE ECTODERM from ECTODERM
Where is Nervous system and more derived from?
NEUROECTODERM from ECTODERM
When is the formation of the Neurotube?
nurulation of week three
When does the trilaminar disc form?
gastrulation of week 3
what lines the blastocyst cavity?
Cytotrophoblast after cavitation, but during bilaminar disc formation. hypoblast cells line the cavity and becomes PRIMARY YOLK SAC
what makes the extraembryonic mesoderm? what do they make when they undergo cavitation?
Hypoblast cells which then forms the chorionic cavity
what is the chorion made of?
cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, extraembryonic mesoderm
What type of Connective tissue is found in Sclera, Dentin, Joint/Organ capsules, and scar tissue? What stain used?
Type 1 Collagen Most abundant 90%. Forms fibrils, fibers, or bundles so it is very customizable in function. w/ HE STAIN; they turn pink, in TRICHROME blue/green
What cells make collagen?
FIBROBLASTS; epithelial cells, smooth muscle, schwann cells (PNS).
What is the structure of elastic fibers of ECM? Where are they found? What stain?
ELASTIN CORE w/ FIBRILIN MICROFILAMENTS. found in Skin, Heart Valves, Arteries, Alveolar lungs. Stain with HE and ORCEIN to distinguish between elastic fibers and collagen.
NEONATAL RDS- What is it? When is it High, moderate, and low risk? What used to treat prenatal? postnatal treatment?
Respiratory distress syndrome from underdeveloped lungs.
HIGH RISK 34 weeks
Prenatal treatment of glucocorticoids (steroids)
Postnatal treatment using CPAP
How do you assess the risk of RDS?
Lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio test- Lecithin 2:1 ratio by 34th week (indicates low RDS).
AMNIOCENTESIS- or vaginal swab if water broke
How do you test for neural tube defects or down snyndrome?
Alpha fetoprotein test- neural tube defects & downsyndrome
hCG- for down syndrome
What are some different ways to test for KARYOTYPING?
cffDNA- cell free fetal DNA test- uses at 7+ weeks. false positives.
CVS- chorionic villus sampling- 10-14 weeks (risky needle into chorionic villus)
AFT- Amniocentesis Amnionic Fluid test (14-20 weeks)- amniotic cavity sample, uses fetal metabolites, proteins, hormones
How would you detect/treat fetal blood disorders like fetal anemia? How would you administer fetal blood transfusions or medications? When can it be used?
PUBS- percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling.
What is Fetoscopy "fetendo"? When is it used?
endoscopy to visualize the fetus.
INVASIVE (penetrates amniotic cavity)
USED IN Twin-twin transfusion syndrome or banding syndrome.
How do you detect if you have a hemaperitoneum from RUPTURED TUBULE PREGNANCY?
Culdocentesis: get fluid from peritoneal cavity- rare, invasive
Dilation and curettage (d&C) . how do you do it? When/why done?
dilate cervix, removal of endometrium (scraping and suction)
Chorionic villi floats ensures removal.
What are two common types of fetal monitoring? When to use each one, what they measure?
Continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitor- fetal heart rate during labor/delivery
Tocodynamometer- Toco - detects uterine contractions to estimate adequate fetal oxygen levels
ACM what is it? whats PROM?
amnio chorionic membrane, prom is premature rupture of membrane. risky business, can cause complications for fetus
Amniotic Fluid. Functions, contains, formed by, circulation
protects from infection, permits movement, regulates temperature & fluid/electrolyte homeostasis
Contains: Fetal cells, Proteins, Electrolytes (collected amniocentesis)
Formed by fetal amniotic cells, diffused maternal tissue fluid, fetal urination.
What is AFV? what does high AFV indicate? Low?
Amniotic fluid volume AFV. 500-1000ml in 3rd trimester.
Low= renal malformations or PROM
Oligohydramnios POTTERS Sequence
Clubbed feet, cranial abnormalities due to compression
Pulmonary hypoplasia (underdeveloped lungs) due to lack of fluid during respiratory movements.
Umbilical cord Composition
1 umbilical vein (blood to fetus)
2 umbilical arteries (blood to placenta intestine, yolk sac, vitelline vessels.
Umbilical cord, collects waste
What are the two parts of the placenta? where are they derived from ?
Decidua basalis- maternal derived from endometrium
Villous Chorion- from fetal chorion
Villous Chorion what and where? What doesn't happen?
Extraembryonic mesoderm carrying fetal blood vessels outward. fetal maternal blood doesn't mix
Placenta- when developed? from where? what does it do? what happens if it doesn't happen?
4 months fertilization age- Cytotrophoblast cells detach and migrate to line maternal arteries to increase blood flow.
PRE-ECLAMPSIA- failed cytotrophoblast migration- hypertension/slowed fetal growth
Failed cytotrophoblast migration- causes maternal hypertension and slowed fetal growth.
Eclampsia- seizures, coma, death of fetus and or mother
Placental barrier whats allowed? Denied?
gas, nutrient, waste
Denies, large molecules
protein hormones and bacteria
What is it called when the placenta attaches to the myometrium of the uterus? what about if it invades or penetrates uterus?
Placenta accreta- attaches
Dizygotic fraternal twins. derived from two fertilized oocytes w/ unique dna.
DCDA, has own chorion and amnion
# trophoblasts= # of chorions
# embryoblasts= # amnions
DCDA- same as DZ twins- two chorions, two amnions.
MCDA- on chorion two amnions
MCMA- share chorion and amnion
TTTS (twin to twin transfusion syndrome)
Monochorionic twins, donor has slowed growth, recipient overloaded with fluid
What are the characteristics of a steroid secreting cell?
big SER looks like bubbles of white noise on TEM.
Has Vesicular Mitochondria- tube-shaped cristae to modify steroids
Lipid inclusions (droplets)- cholesterol storage for steroid production
What does the SER make and contain? What kind of cell uses mainly SER?
Steroid-secreting or detoxifying cell.
SER makes- phospholipids for cellular membranes
Steroid hormones for secretion
Contains enzymes for Detoxifying reactions (hepatocytes in liver), glycogen metabolism
What type of cell has lipid droplets, lots of SER, and vesicular mitochondria?
What type of cells display Microvilli, basal & lateral folds, lots of mitochondria?
Rapid Active Transport Cells
What are types of endocytosis (absorption)? regulated or constitutive?
Phagocytosis- specialized; phagosomes
failure to degrade misfolded nuclear proteins- huntingtons
failure to degrade hyperphosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins- Alzheimer's
1. intracellular movement of organelles
2. flagella & cilia
3. mitotic spindle of cell division
4. changes in cell shape
ACTIN FILAMENTS- Where found. what do?
1. Anchor plasma membrane
2. Core of Microvilli (Mv)
3. Cell migration (lamellipodia, filopodia)
5. contraction of muscles and
6. contractile ring of cytokenesis
Cell to cell and
Cell to ECM adhesion
(larger than actin)
Whats it called when cells multiply, when get bigger, smaller, change into something else?
METAPLASIA-Change into something else
Epithelium is made from what germ layer?
All three germ layers make epithelium
Mesoderm-blood&lymph (endothelium), body cavities (mesothelium). Urinary & reproductive
Structure of Microvilli Mv.
Mv Core of ACTIN filaments that are cross-linked to plasma membrane. Anchored to TERMINAL WEB (TW).
What is the Glycocalyx? what stain used? function?
Gell coat above microvilli in the lumen. a Layer of glycoproteins & glycolipids stained with PAS.
Functions in metabolism, cell recognition, receptor sites
Structure of Cilia? What is it anchored to?
What is Mv structure?
9+2 arrangement of MICROTUBULES. Anchored to BASAL BODY of 9 TRIPLETS.. MOVEMENT
Mv is actin, anchored by TERMINAL WEB. ABSORPTION
Where is cilia located? Mv located?
What are two types of abnormal cilia? one type of Mv
Cilia in respiratory, Uterine tubes.
Mv in intestines and kidney tubules
KINOCILIUM (inner ear) & FLAGELLUM (sperm)
STEROCILIA (CILIUM) in male reproductive system is actually a GIANT MICROVILLI
kinocilium- cilia inner ear
Sterocilia/cilium- microvilli in male reproductive system
What lateral domain feature establishes polarity and forms a barrier to paracellular transport? What does it NOT do?
Tight junction. NOT INVOLVED WITH ADHESION.
Transmembrane proteins that are sewn/stitched into top lateral cell surface and act like VELCRO as they meet the adjacent cell's TP's. These Tight junctions can get tighter or looser depending on the cell needs.
Zona occludens/ Occluding Junction. Where located?
Tight junctions- Located upper lateral domain and forms a belt-like junction between adjacent cells.
est barier for paracellular transport and a polarity of apical surface (locks membrane proteins from changing domain locations).
ONCE TIGHT JUNCTIONS FORMED, DOMAINS ESTABLISHED AND CELL SAID TO HAVE POLARITY. think of it as polarity of domain.
What 2 transmembrane proteins weave in and out of the cell's plasma membrane, extending into the ICS? Work like velcro
Occludin and Claudins.
Intercellular structure of tight junctions.
ions and small molecules can paracellularly transport past, and WBC's from blood vessels into CT's can pass too.
What transmembrane proteins link actin filaments of adjacent cells cytoskeletons together?
e-cadherin, Zonula adherens, CAMS. cell surfaces don't touch.
What does cadherin do?
Resist mechanical separation of cells near the apical surface. Maintains structure when epithelia is a sheet of cells.
It is the end to end adhesion of cells, and links the actin filaments of a cell's cytoskeleton to another cell's cytoskeleton through that cells cadherin.
Macula adherens- STRONG, Linked to Keratin
Desmosomes where CAMS overlap but cells still dont touch. Creates a cadherin zipper appearance in the ICS at TEM. and the CAMS insert into an ATTACHMENT PLAQUE (looks like a black end of a neuron/synapse) with ghost fibers that are KERATIN attaching to the ATTACHMENT PLAQUE..
What types of junctions from apical to basal
Tight at top lateral, then adheren junction belt, then desmosomes (macula adherens). MACULA = spot.
Junctional complex- what kind of cells?
1. ZO- occludin
3. D-macula adherin
gap junctions under the adheren belt junction
LATERAL FOLDS of lateral epithelial domain
1. increases SA for cell contact (like grip tape)
2. Rivers for fluid/electrolyte transport (via transcellular pathway)
If you see a TEM that looks like it has a river/stream on a map and the cell has brush boarder Mv,
LATERAL FOLDS (grip tape SA, Fluid transcell transport)
NEXUS. what made of? function?
Communicating junctions or GAP JUNCTIONS.
Made of CONNEXONS aligned with other cells connexons.
Open and close to send messages to each other.
If you see a TEM of rivers attached to the basement membrane surrounded by mitochondria what is this indicative of? on LM basal part of cell looks STRIATED (b/c mitochondria).
Basal folds of BM and TRANSPORT type cell
What two layers of BM? What distinguishes them?
Basal Lamina & Reticular Lamina.
At LM=BM but can see TEM=BL & RL
What is composed of Integrins, TypeIV collagen, Fibronectin, and laminin? and what Are the three functions?
1. attachment of EC's to CT
2. Regulation/filtration of EC's CT
3. Scaffolding support
What is the basal lamina composed of? 4 things.
1. Integrins, 2. TypeIV collagen, 3. Fibronectin, 4. Laminin
What is made from type III collagen fibrils in form of reticular fibers, that is made by Fibroblasts (CT cells) that links the CT to the BL?
Reticular lamina- composition-function.
type3 collagen (reticular fibrils), anchoring fibrils and plaques.
Strengthens BM and links CT to BL
what attaches the basal part of the cell to the basal lamina? How is it attached? What does it look like on TEM?
INTEGRINS linked to the Basal lamina insert through the Epithelial cell's basal domain through ATTACHMENT PLAQUES and link to KERATIN filaments in the cell's cytoplasm.
TEM: BM with dark pyramids coming out of the BM into the cytoplasm. looks Just like keratin fibers on desmosomes in the lateral domain.
Mechanosensitivity & Adhesion.
They attach basal lamina to actin filament in basal domain of epithelial cells
What epithelium is composed of columnar cells and basal cells? Where is it specialized for? Where are the nuclei for each cell?
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Respiratory/Male reproductive system. Basal nuclei near BM, columnar nuclei located at differing levels.
What epithelium found in stomach? in esophagus? is it keratinized?
Stomach is simple columnar ET.
Esophagus is stratified squamous NON KERATINIZED
Replacing one MATURE epithelium with another MATURE epithelium (often suited to handle new stress). What is most important about this? Barrets Esophagus
All epithelial cells present within a gland called?
CT that supports the gland (includes blood & lymph vessels) called?
PARENCHYMA- cell of the gland
STROMA- supporting CT (bv & lv's)
Glands secrete toward basal lamina to vessels in the stroma?
Glands that secrete to lumen surface?
Endocrine glands-->stroma--> vessels (NO DUCTS)
Exocrine glands-->lumen/surface (HAS DUCT)
TEM w/ small vesicles near BM w/ lots of RER & GOLGI. NO LUMEN, no polarization to apical surface
protein/peptide based hormone ENDOCRINE GLAND
TEM w/ large lipid droplets all around cell, No domains, no lumen, no free surface, no accumulated secretory vessels.
Endocrine gland- Lipid/Steroid hormone producing
SIMPLE/COMPOUND & TUBULAR/ACINAR
Acinar- round ended/berry shaped
Tubular- uniform like a tube
simple- ONE DUCT
compound- MULTIPLE DUCTS
What type of gland has two types of secretion modes? what are they?
Apocrine=takes some membrane
Holocrine=take all membrane with it
Secretory of SEROUS or MUCUS
LM has a lumen, round nucleus near BM, granulated cytoplasm, slightly basophilic in color w/ HE stain. TEM shows Regulated type seretion stores located near lumen, abundant RER.
SEROUS CELLS of exocrine gland
secrete watery sub. thats has poorly glycosylated proteins
LM is pink with white/pink LACY spider web with central lumen in HE stain. Nucleus is Basal located and FLAT
Mucus cells of exocrine gland. abundant in highly glycosylated proteins (mucins). abundant tight pakced secretory vesicles.
LM of epithelial cells (simple columnar w/ brush border) white looking cells in between epithelial cells. nucleus basal located. Secretory vessels lumen located. abundant in RER
Goblet cells of mucous exocrine gland
which junction establishes polarity? which ones for adherens? communication?
Uncontrolled proliferation of cells (failure of normal regulatory mechanisms).
Carcinoma in Situ.
BM still intact. Invasive carcinoma goes through BM, and Metastatic carcinoma gets to the CT and bv's and spreads to other locations
Where do Glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and multi-adhesive glycoproteins come into play with connective tissue?
Main components of the GROUND SUBSTANCE
appears white on TEM, clear on LM
What are the 3 main components of Ground substance?
GAG's, MGP's, PG's
Build me a Proteoglycan out loud. What is special about GAG's?
GAG's bound to a protein core. GAG's Sulfated, VERY NEGATIVE, attract Na+ which attracts water to form a hydration shell around the proteoglycan.
Primary function of Proteoglycans. Why important?
Hydrate ECM & hold water in the CT. Important for cell motility, and establishing concentration gradients
What is a primary component of Cartilage ECM? Function?
Proteoglycan agregates are PG's connected to Haluronin with linker proteins (not sulfated but neg charged). Primary function of resisting compression as "shock absorbers"
Primary function of GAGS & PG's in BM?
Proteins that run parallel to plasma membrane function of
1. ECM assembly/stabilization
2. Adhesion (fibroblast to ECM)
4. Regulate cell migration
What are 5 types?
What are integrins?
MGP's- Multi adhesive glyco proteins
INTEGRINS are transmembrane proteins that connect ACTIN to MGP's
Fibronectin, Laminin, Tenascin, Osteopontin, Enactin/nidogen are all examples of what type of Protein?
MGP's Multi adhesive glyco proteins.
With INTEGRINS, MGP's form FOCAL ADHESIONS.
Focal adhesions are cell to matrix adhesions that transfer mechanical signals to ECM
Elastic Fiber distribution: Stain: Structure.
TEM looks like large BLACK stain with black granules surrounding it
Dermis (skin), Heart valves, Walls of large arteries, Lungs (alveolar walls). H&E with ORCEIN to distinguish between collagen fibers.
ELASTIN CORE- Fibrillin microfibrils
Collagen. Structure, Function, Distribution. Where is it made? STAIN
Fibrils, Fibers, Bundles, STRENGTH
Found: Dermis, Hypodermis, fascia, Bones, ligament, tendons, joint capsules, sclera of Eye, dentin, organ/joint capsules
Made by Fibroblasts, EC's, Smooth Muscle cells, Schwann Cells (PNS).
Made outside the cell (extracellularly)
1. tropocollagen ordered alignment forms Fibril, bundle of fibrils makes a fiber, bundle of fibers makes bundle.
HE stain pink. TRICHROME- Green or blue
TEM shows striated fibers or groups of uniform polkadots
Collagen Type 1