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Flashcards in Exam 1 Materials Deck (155):
1

What are three important dates during week one of development? What happens on each day?

Day 1- Zygote formed after fertilization in ampulla of uterine tube

Day 4- Morula enters Uterus

Day 6- implantation of blastocyst begins

2

When is the preembryonic, embryonic, and fetal periods of prenatal development? What happens in each period?

Weeks 1 & 2: Pre-Embryonic. Fertilization & implantation

Weeks 3-8; Embryonic. Germ layers developed & organogenesis.

Weeks 9-38: Fetal. Growth & maturation of organ systems

3

What period and week do most birth defects appear? Why?

embryonic period 3-8 weeks b/c its the period of organogenesis

4

approximately___% of embryos are spontaneously _______ in the ________period

50%, aborted, pre-embryonic period

5

_________account for ____% of spontaneous abortions and ____% of birth defects and develop primarily during ______ stage of _________.

Chromosomal aberrations, 25%, 12%, Meiosis, gametogenesis.

6

When does M1 begin in female oogenesis? When does it end and M2 begin? when does M2 end? what is the product of oogenesis?

M1 begins-prenatal
M1 ends (completed at ovulation) M2 arrested until ovulation.
M2 ends at fertilization.
produces 1 oocyte, 3 polar bodies (not viable).

7

What is capacitation? How many capacitated sperm reach oocyte?

7 hour conditioning of sperm where the glycoprotein coat on sperm head is removed to facilitate fertilization. 300 to 500 reach oocyte

8

What percent of couples are infertile and why?

15-30%. Infecction, low sperm count, motility issues, ovulation disorders, cysts, fibroids

9

Mosaicism

MITOTIC (not meiotic) nondisjunction during cleavage. Generally less severe mosaic down syndrome.

10

Week 2 events? What are primary nutrition sources? When is uteroplacental circulation fully established?

Uteroplacental exchange begins. Syncytiotrophoblast invaginates uterine wall. Primary nutrition sources are uterine gland secretions then becomes the uteroplacental exchange of vascular lacunae

11

Implantation bleeding. What secretes hCG? what cascade sustains embryonic growth? What day levels detect w/ prego test?

can be mistaken for menstrual bleeding and effect age estimates. Syncytiotrophoblast secretes hCG.

hCG stimulates progesterone to increase uterine blood flow to sustain embryonic growth.

hCG linked to hyperemesis gravidium

12

what causes hydatidiform mole? What called if malignant? What sign exists for mole?

embryoblast absent/incomplete and trophoblast continues to function/implant/grow without growth regulators from embryoblast and forms large tumor. choriocarcinoma if malignant. Elevated hCG.

13

epiblast cavitation forms what cavity? What is the bilaminar disk?

amniotic cavity. embryoblast divides into hypoblast and epiblast then cavity forms in epiblast to form amniotic cavity. hypoblast becomes PYS.

14

Hypoblast development? PYS,EM,CC,SYS

hypoblast migrates out to line the primary yoke sac, then differentiates further to form the EM: extraembryonic mesoderm. Cavitation of the EM creates a CC: Chorionic cavity which compresses the primary yolk sac into becoming a secondary yolk sac.

15

Ectoderm gives rise to what?

Surface ectoderm-> epidermis (hair, nails, glands)
Neuro ectoderm -> NEURAL TUBE-> CNS
NEURAL CREST->PNS and more

16

Endoderm turns into what organs?

epithelial lining of GI & respiratory systems

17

Mesoderm turns into what ?
Paraxial, intermediate, lateral plate Turn into what?

Paraxial (somites)-
1. Sclerotome -> vertebrae & ribs
2. Dermatome -> dermis
3. Myotome -> skeletal muscle

Intermediate -> Urinary & reproductive systems

Lateral Plate
1. Parietal --> CT, Cartilage, bones & limbs
2. Visceral -->Gi & Respiratory organs (except epithelium)

18

Identify Neural fold, Neural Groove, Neural tube, notochord, somites

Neural fold- speed humps
Neural groove almost barreled
Neural Tube- doughnut

19

H&E, PAS, Trichrome, silver, orcein, Sudan red, osmic acid Stains

HE- Hematoxylin blue, eosin red
PAS-carbs magenta
TRICHROME- Collagen fibers blue/green
SILVER- reticular fibers/collagen- BLACK
ORCEIN- Elastic fibers brown/black
SudanRED-lipids red, OSMIC ACID-lipids Black

20

What happens at week 10, 12, 15, and 24-28 weeks?

10- swallowing & urine formation (important for GI)
12- long bone ossification centers formed
12- external genitals visible w/ ultrasound
15- respiratory movements
24-28- sound & light recognition

21

What do you use Ultrasound for monitoring? What measurements made? when can you use it?

Fetal weight, size, age, developmental defects, nutritional deficiencies.circulation. CRL, Biparietal diameter (around crown), AC, (ab circ). FL. use it after 5 weeks

22

EFW? SGA?

Estimated Fetal Weight
Small for Gestational Age-> low EFW for age but normal weight for the size of fetus

23

Low EFW for age, low EFW for size is a result of what two possible things? how much more likely is mortality?

Intrauterine growth restriction
or
In utero growth retardation (IUGR)
30X more likely mortality

24

fFN Test? what does it assess? how? when?

fetal fibronectin test. Assesses preterm delivery risk. by taking vaginal swab for placental adhesive glycoproteins and is reliable between weeks 22-34. Preterm skin is red/wrinkled paucity of dermal ct

25

What test do you use for RDS? what should you see? what else can you use if water breaks?

lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio test. Lecithin should rise relative to sphingomyelin of 2:1 by 34th week = low rds. can use vaginal swab for ACM rupture

26

What types of maternal serum screening? what used for?

a-fetoprotein: neural tube defects, down syndrome (common used)

hCG: molar pregnancy, choriocarcinoma, ectopic pregnancy, down syndrome

Cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA): karyotyping 7+weeks not reliable. synscitiotrophoblast cells used?

27

CVS, AFT, what, when, how. Which is better?

Chorionic villus sampling: biopsy of chorionic villus w/ needle. 10-14 weeks, higher risk than aft, used for Karyotyping

Amniocentesis, amniotic fluid test: sample amnionic fluid w/ needle. 14-20 weeks (adequate fluid). Used for karyotyping, fetal metabolites, proteins, hormones. low risk

28

PUBS, Fetendo

percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling- detect/treat fetal blood disorders (anemia) or administer blood transfusion or meds.

Fetoscopy- invasive high risk, penetrates amnionic cavity.

29

Culdocentesis:

needle transvaginal to peritoneal cavity, invasive, rare; used to detect ruptured tubal pregnancy (now they just use ultrasound and surgery)

30

Dilation and curettage (DC)

dialation of cervix and removal of endometrium (scraping/suction). Used for miscarriage, molar pregnancy, postpartum hemorrhage.

Chorionic villi floats in saline.

31

Tocodynamometer TOCO. what used with?

Pressure monitor on abdomen to detect uterine contractions. contractions & heart rate used together to estimate adequate fetal oxygen levels

32

ACM? ABS? PROM?

amniochorionic membrane - fused- water break
Amniotic band syndrome with premature repturing of the ACM.

33

Amnionic fluid. Function. Composition. origin. fetal circulation. maternal circulation. Amniocentesis

protects (physical, infection, body temp, fluid homeostasis)
composed of (fetal cells, proteins, electrolytes)

Formed by fetal amniotic cells lining cavity, diffusion of maternal tissue fluid, fetal urination

swallowed, aspirated, absorbed skin
returns to mom uteroplacental xchng, excretion to amnion & diffused into maternal tissue

34

AFV. if high what does it mean? low?

amnionic fluid volume.
High afv -> means GI problems (AF not being swallowed)
Low afv-> means renal malformations (fetus not urinating) or
PROM. of ACM

35

Oligohydramnios (potter's ) sequence

clubbed feet & cranial anomalies due to compression.

36

Pulmonary hypoplasia

Pulmonary hypoplasia (under-developed lungs) due to lack of fluid during respiratory movements

37

Placenta is made up of what layers?

Decidua basalis (maternal derived from endometrium)
Villous Chorion (from fetal chorion)

38

Plaental barrier transformation at 4 months fertilization age. What happens? What happens if the transformation fails?

cytotrophoblast cells detach and migrate to line the maternal arteries to INCREASE maternal BLOOD VESSELS and INCREASE BLOOD FLOW.

If fails: Preeclampsia: causes maternal hypertension/slowed fetal growth

Eclampsia- seizures, coma, death

39

Placenta acts like a membrane. What does it allow to pass or not to pass?

Blocks: large molecules, protein hormones, bacteria

Allows: gas, nutrient, waste, steroid hormones, antibodies, medications/drugs, viruses

40

What is it called when the placenta attaches to the myometrium? invades myometrium? penetrates myometrium?

Placenta ACCRETA: attaches uterus
Placenta INCRETA: invades uterus
Placenta PERCRETA: penetrates uterus

41

DZ twins? DCDA

fraternal twins; derived from two fertilized oocytes (unique dna). Each twin has its own everything and develops independently. ALWAYS HAS ITS OWN CHORION AND ITS OWN AMNION

42

MZ: DCDA, MCDA, MCMA
#trophoblasts = # chorions
#embryoblasts=# amnions

Monozygotic twins- Identical.
DCDA-->2 cell zygote splits to form 2 blastocyts
MCDA-> one blastocyst w/ two embryoblasts
MCMA-> one blastocyst w/ one embryoblast

43

Conjoined, parasitic, vanishing, TTTS

conjoined: incomplete splitting of monozygotic twins
parasitic: asymmetrical conjoined monozygotic twins
vanishing: death of 1 fetus (common)
twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS): MONOCHORIONIC TWINS ONLY... donor has slow growth, recipient is loaded w/ fluid

44

What characteristics should you find in a PROTEIN SECRETING CELL? What is constitutive vs. regulative?

Nucleus, Rough ER (make proteins), Golgi (package and ship), Secretory vesicle (exocytosis) mitochondria.

Constitutive is continuous; Regulative is for storage and release when signaled

45

What characteristics found in a STEROID SECRETING CELL?

SMOOTH ER (looks like cross sections of tubes), Lipid inclusions (droplets) cholesterol storage for steroid production

Vesicular mitochondria (tube-shaped cristae; for modifying steroids)

46

If I have blue or green fibers what stain and what type of tissue?

Trichrome & Collagen Fibers

47

What kind of stain for red/brown or black fibers? What kind of tissues?

Orcein for elastic fibers/ brown/red or black

48

What stains lipids red? black?

Sudan red, osmic acid-black

49

What stains reticular fibers and collagen? what color?

Silver stains collagen and reticular fibers BLACK

50

what stain used for glycoproteins and carbs?

PAS

51

What is urinary & reproductive system derived from?

INTERMEDIATE PLATE of the MESODERM that comes from EPIBLAST which comes from EMBRYOBLAST which comes from inner mass cells of the morula

52

What layer does skeletal muscle come from?

MYOTOME layer of PARAXIAL SOMITES of the MESODERM

53

What layer does the dermis come from?

DERMATOMES from PARAXIAL SOMITES from MESODERM

54

Where does vertebrae and ribs come from?

SCLEROTOME from PARAXIAL SOMITES from MESODERM

55

What three layers derived from PARAXIAL SOMITES?

SCLEROTOME (vertebrae/ribs), DERMATOME (dermis), MYOTOME (skeletal muscle).

56

Where is CT, Cartilage, bones of body wall and limb derived from?

PARIETAL from LATERAL PLATE from MESODERM

57

Where is GI & Respiratory organs derived from?

VISCERAL from LATERAL PLATE from MESODERM

58

Where is epithelial lining of Respiratory, GI, Urinary derived from?

ENDODERM

59

What are the three layers of mesoderm

PARAXIAL SOMITES- INTERMEDIATE- LATERAL PLATE

60

Where is epidermis derived from?

SURFACE ECTODERM from ECTODERM

61

Where is Nervous system and more derived from?

NEUROECTODERM from ECTODERM

62

When is the formation of the Neurotube?

nurulation of week three

63

When does the trilaminar disc form?

gastrulation of week 3

64

what lines the blastocyst cavity?

Cytotrophoblast after cavitation, but during bilaminar disc formation. hypoblast cells line the cavity and becomes PRIMARY YOLK SAC

65

what makes the extraembryonic mesoderm? what do they make when they undergo cavitation?

Hypoblast cells which then forms the chorionic cavity

66

what is the chorion made of?

cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, extraembryonic mesoderm

67

What type of Connective tissue is found in Sclera, Dentin, Joint/Organ capsules, and scar tissue? What stain used?

Type 1 Collagen Most abundant 90%. Forms fibrils, fibers, or bundles so it is very customizable in function. w/ HE STAIN; they turn pink, in TRICHROME blue/green

68

What cells make collagen?

FIBROBLASTS; epithelial cells, smooth muscle, schwann cells (PNS).

69

What is the structure of elastic fibers of ECM? Where are they found? What stain?

ELASTIN CORE w/ FIBRILIN MICROFILAMENTS. found in Skin, Heart Valves, Arteries, Alveolar lungs. Stain with HE and ORCEIN to distinguish between elastic fibers and collagen.

70

NEONATAL RDS- What is it? When is it High, moderate, and low risk? What used to treat prenatal? postnatal treatment?

Respiratory distress syndrome from underdeveloped lungs.
HIGH RISK 34 weeks
Prenatal treatment of glucocorticoids (steroids)
Postnatal treatment using CPAP

71

How do you assess the risk of RDS?

Lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio test- Lecithin 2:1 ratio by 34th week (indicates low RDS).

AMNIOCENTESIS- or vaginal swab if water broke

72

How do you test for neural tube defects or down snyndrome?

Alpha fetoprotein test- neural tube defects & downsyndrome

hCG- for down syndrome

73

What are some different ways to test for KARYOTYPING?

cffDNA- cell free fetal DNA test- uses at 7+ weeks. false positives.

CVS- chorionic villus sampling- 10-14 weeks (risky needle into chorionic villus)

AFT- Amniocentesis Amnionic Fluid test (14-20 weeks)- amniotic cavity sample, uses fetal metabolites, proteins, hormones

74

How would you detect/treat fetal blood disorders like fetal anemia? How would you administer fetal blood transfusions or medications? When can it be used?

PUBS- percutaneous umbilical cord blood sampling.
>17 weeks
high risk

75

What is Fetoscopy "fetendo"? When is it used?

endoscopy to visualize the fetus.
INVASIVE (penetrates amniotic cavity)
HIGH RISK

USED IN Twin-twin transfusion syndrome or banding syndrome.

76

How do you detect if you have a hemaperitoneum from RUPTURED TUBULE PREGNANCY?

Culdocentesis: get fluid from peritoneal cavity- rare, invasive

77

Dilation and curettage (d&C) . how do you do it? When/why done?

dilate cervix, removal of endometrium (scraping and suction)
Chorionic villi floats ensures removal.

78

What are two common types of fetal monitoring? When to use each one, what they measure?

Continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitor- fetal heart rate during labor/delivery

Tocodynamometer- Toco - detects uterine contractions to estimate adequate fetal oxygen levels

79

ACM what is it? whats PROM?

amnio chorionic membrane, prom is premature rupture of membrane. risky business, can cause complications for fetus

80

Amniotic Fluid. Functions, contains, formed by, circulation

protects from infection, permits movement, regulates temperature & fluid/electrolyte homeostasis

Contains: Fetal cells, Proteins, Electrolytes (collected amniocentesis)

Formed by fetal amniotic cells, diffused maternal tissue fluid, fetal urination.

81

What is AFV? what does high AFV indicate? Low?

Amniotic fluid volume AFV. 500-1000ml in 3rd trimester.

High=gi malformations
Low= renal malformations or PROM

82

Oligohydramnios POTTERS Sequence

Clubbed feet, cranial abnormalities due to compression

Pulmonary hypoplasia (underdeveloped lungs) due to lack of fluid during respiratory movements.

83

Umbilical cord Composition

1 umbilical vein (blood to fetus)
2 umbilical arteries (blood to placenta intestine, yolk sac, vitelline vessels.

84

Allantois

Umbilical cord, collects waste

85

What are the two parts of the placenta? where are they derived from ?

Decidua basalis- maternal derived from endometrium

Villous Chorion- from fetal chorion

86

Villous Chorion what and where? What doesn't happen?

Extraembryonic mesoderm carrying fetal blood vessels outward. fetal maternal blood doesn't mix

87

Placenta- when developed? from where? what does it do? what happens if it doesn't happen?

4 months fertilization age- Cytotrophoblast cells detach and migrate to line maternal arteries to increase blood flow.

PRE-ECLAMPSIA- failed cytotrophoblast migration- hypertension/slowed fetal growth

88

Preeclampsia/eclampsia

Failed cytotrophoblast migration- causes maternal hypertension and slowed fetal growth.

Eclampsia- seizures, coma, death of fetus and or mother

89

Placental barrier whats allowed? Denied?

Allows-
gas, nutrient, waste
steroid hormones
antibiodies
medication/drugs
viruses

Denies, large molecules
protein hormones and bacteria

90

What is it called when the placenta attaches to the myometrium of the uterus? what about if it invades or penetrates uterus?

Placenta accreta- attaches
Increta- invades
Percreta- penetrates

91

Fraternal TWins

Dizygotic fraternal twins. derived from two fertilized oocytes w/ unique dna.

DCDA, has own chorion and amnion

92

Monozygotic twins-identical

# trophoblasts= # of chorions
# embryoblasts= # amnions

DCDA- same as DZ twins- two chorions, two amnions.

MCDA- on chorion two amnions

MCMA- share chorion and amnion

93

TTTS (twin to twin transfusion syndrome)

Monochorionic twins, donor has slowed growth, recipient overloaded with fluid

94

What are the characteristics of a steroid secreting cell?

big SER looks like bubbles of white noise on TEM.

Has Vesicular Mitochondria- tube-shaped cristae to modify steroids

Lipid inclusions (droplets)- cholesterol storage for steroid production

95

What does the SER make and contain? What kind of cell uses mainly SER?

Steroid-secreting or detoxifying cell.
SER makes- phospholipids for cellular membranes
Steroid hormones for secretion

Contains enzymes for Detoxifying reactions (hepatocytes in liver), glycogen metabolism

96

What type of cell has lipid droplets, lots of SER, and vesicular mitochondria?

Steroid-Secreting cells

97

What type of cells display Microvilli, basal & lateral folds, lots of mitochondria?

Rapid Active Transport Cells

98

What are types of endocytosis (absorption)? regulated or constitutive?

Pinocytosis- constitutive
Receptor-mediated: regulated
Phagocytosis- specialized; phagosomes

99

Huntingtons disease?
Alzheimer's disease?

failure to degrade misfolded nuclear proteins- huntingtons

failure to degrade hyperphosphorylated cytoskeletal proteins- Alzheimer's

100

MICROTUBULES

1. intracellular movement of organelles
2. flagella & cilia
3. mitotic spindle of cell division
4. changes in cell shape

101

ACTIN FILAMENTS- Where found. what do?

globular proteins
1. Anchor plasma membrane
2. Core of Microvilli (Mv)
3. Cell migration (lamellipodia, filopodia)
4. phagocytosis
5. contraction of muscles and
6. contractile ring of cytokenesis

102

INTERMEDIATE FILAMENTS

ADHESION:
Cell to cell and
Cell to ECM adhesion
(larger than actin)

103

Whats it called when cells multiply, when get bigger, smaller, change into something else?

HYPERPLASIA- multiply
HYPERTROPHY-bigger
ATROPHY-smaller
METAPLASIA-Change into something else

104

Epithelium is made from what germ layer?

All three germ layers make epithelium
Ectoderm-skin
Endoderm-Respiratory/Urinary system
Mesoderm-blood&lymph (endothelium), body cavities (mesothelium). Urinary & reproductive

105

Structure of Microvilli Mv.

Mv Core of ACTIN filaments that are cross-linked to plasma membrane. Anchored to TERMINAL WEB (TW).






106

What is the Glycocalyx? what stain used? function?

Gell coat above microvilli in the lumen. a Layer of glycoproteins & glycolipids stained with PAS.

Functions in metabolism, cell recognition, receptor sites

107

Structure of Cilia? What is it anchored to?

What is Mv structure?

9+2 arrangement of MICROTUBULES. Anchored to BASAL BODY of 9 TRIPLETS.. MOVEMENT

Mv is actin, anchored by TERMINAL WEB. ABSORPTION

108

Where is cilia located? Mv located?
What are two types of abnormal cilia? one type of Mv

Cilia in respiratory, Uterine tubes.

Mv in intestines and kidney tubules

KINOCILIUM (inner ear) & FLAGELLUM (sperm)

STEROCILIA (CILIUM) in male reproductive system is actually a GIANT MICROVILLI

109

Kinocilium? Sterocilia/cilium?

kinocilium- cilia inner ear
Sterocilia/cilium- microvilli in male reproductive system

110

What lateral domain feature establishes polarity and forms a barrier to paracellular transport? What does it NOT do?

Tight junction. NOT INVOLVED WITH ADHESION.

Transmembrane proteins that are sewn/stitched into top lateral cell surface and act like VELCRO as they meet the adjacent cell's TP's. These Tight junctions can get tighter or looser depending on the cell needs.

111

Zona occludens/ Occluding Junction. Where located?

Tight junctions- Located upper lateral domain and forms a belt-like junction between adjacent cells.

est barier for paracellular transport and a polarity of apical surface (locks membrane proteins from changing domain locations).

ONCE TIGHT JUNCTIONS FORMED, DOMAINS ESTABLISHED AND CELL SAID TO HAVE POLARITY. think of it as polarity of domain.

112

What 2 transmembrane proteins weave in and out of the cell's plasma membrane, extending into the ICS? Work like velcro

Occludin and Claudins.
Intercellular structure of tight junctions.
ions and small molecules can paracellularly transport past, and WBC's from blood vessels into CT's can pass too.

113

What transmembrane proteins link actin filaments of adjacent cells cytoskeletons together?

e-cadherin, Zonula adherens, CAMS. cell surfaces don't touch.

114

What does cadherin do?

Resist mechanical separation of cells near the apical surface. Maintains structure when epithelia is a sheet of cells.

It is the end to end adhesion of cells, and links the actin filaments of a cell's cytoskeleton to another cell's cytoskeleton through that cells cadherin.

115

Macula adherens- STRONG, Linked to Keratin

Desmosomes where CAMS overlap but cells still dont touch. Creates a cadherin zipper appearance in the ICS at TEM. and the CAMS insert into an ATTACHMENT PLAQUE (looks like a black end of a neuron/synapse) with ghost fibers that are KERATIN attaching to the ATTACHMENT PLAQUE..

116

What types of junctions from apical to basal

Tight at top lateral, then adheren junction belt, then desmosomes (macula adherens). MACULA = spot.

117

Junctional complex- what kind of cells?

ABSORPTIVE CELLS
1. ZO- occludin
2. ZA-adherin
3. D-macula adherin
gap junctions under the adheren belt junction

118

LATERAL FOLDS of lateral epithelial domain

1. increases SA for cell contact (like grip tape)
2. Rivers for fluid/electrolyte transport (via transcellular pathway)

119

If you see a TEM that looks like it has a river/stream on a map and the cell has brush boarder Mv,

LATERAL FOLDS (grip tape SA, Fluid transcell transport)

120

NEXUS. what made of? function?

Communicating junctions or GAP JUNCTIONS.
Made of CONNEXONS aligned with other cells connexons.
Open and close to send messages to each other.

121

If you see a TEM of rivers attached to the basement membrane surrounded by mitochondria what is this indicative of? on LM basal part of cell looks STRIATED (b/c mitochondria).

Basal folds of BM and TRANSPORT type cell

122

What two layers of BM? What distinguishes them?

Basal Lamina & Reticular Lamina.

At LM=BM but can see TEM=BL & RL

123

What is composed of Integrins, TypeIV collagen, Fibronectin, and laminin? and what Are the three functions?

Basal Lamina
1. attachment of EC's to CT
2. Regulation/filtration of EC's CT
3. Scaffolding support

124

What is the basal lamina composed of? 4 things.

1. Integrins, 2. TypeIV collagen, 3. Fibronectin, 4. Laminin

125

What is made from type III collagen fibrils in form of reticular fibers, that is made by Fibroblasts (CT cells) that links the CT to the BL?

Reticular lamina

126

Reticular lamina- composition-function.

type3 collagen (reticular fibrils), anchoring fibrils and plaques.

Strengthens BM and links CT to BL

127

what attaches the basal part of the cell to the basal lamina? How is it attached? What does it look like on TEM?

INTEGRINS linked to the Basal lamina insert through the Epithelial cell's basal domain through ATTACHMENT PLAQUES and link to KERATIN filaments in the cell's cytoplasm.
TEM: BM with dark pyramids coming out of the BM into the cytoplasm. looks Just like keratin fibers on desmosomes in the lateral domain.

128

FOCAL ADHESIONS

Mechanosensitivity & Adhesion.

They attach basal lamina to actin filament in basal domain of epithelial cells

129

What epithelium is composed of columnar cells and basal cells? Where is it specialized for? Where are the nuclei for each cell?

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium. Respiratory/Male reproductive system. Basal nuclei near BM, columnar nuclei located at differing levels.

130

What epithelium found in stomach? in esophagus? is it keratinized?

Stomach is simple columnar ET.
Esophagus is stratified squamous NON KERATINIZED

131

Replacing one MATURE epithelium with another MATURE epithelium (often suited to handle new stress). What is most important about this? Barrets Esophagus

METAPLASIA-- REVERSIBLE

132

All epithelial cells present within a gland called?
CT that supports the gland (includes blood & lymph vessels) called?

PARENCHYMA- cell of the gland
STROMA- supporting CT (bv & lv's)

133

Glands secrete toward basal lamina to vessels in the stroma?
Glands that secrete to lumen surface?

Endocrine glands-->stroma--> vessels (NO DUCTS)
Exocrine glands-->lumen/surface (HAS DUCT)

134

TEM w/ small vesicles near BM w/ lots of RER & GOLGI. NO LUMEN, no polarization to apical surface

protein/peptide based hormone ENDOCRINE GLAND

135

TEM w/ large lipid droplets all around cell, No domains, no lumen, no free surface, no accumulated secretory vessels.

Endocrine gland- Lipid/Steroid hormone producing

136

SIMPLE/COMPOUND & TUBULAR/ACINAR

Acinar- round ended/berry shaped
Tubular- uniform like a tube
simple- ONE DUCT
compound- MULTIPLE DUCTS

137

What type of gland has two types of secretion modes? what are they?

EXOCRINE GLAND
Merocrine=Exocytosis
Apocrine=takes some membrane
Holocrine=take all membrane with it
OR
Secretory of SEROUS or MUCUS

138

LM has a lumen, round nucleus near BM, granulated cytoplasm, slightly basophilic in color w/ HE stain. TEM shows Regulated type seretion stores located near lumen, abundant RER.

SEROUS CELLS of exocrine gland

secrete watery sub. thats has poorly glycosylated proteins

139

LM is pink with white/pink LACY spider web with central lumen in HE stain. Nucleus is Basal located and FLAT

Mucus cells of exocrine gland. abundant in highly glycosylated proteins (mucins). abundant tight pakced secretory vesicles.

140

LM of epithelial cells (simple columnar w/ brush border) white looking cells in between epithelial cells. nucleus basal located. Secretory vessels lumen located. abundant in RER

Goblet cells of mucous exocrine gland

141

which junction establishes polarity? which ones for adherens? communication?

Tight
Adherens
Desmosomes
Gap

142

Uncontrolled proliferation of cells (failure of normal regulatory mechanisms).

Neoplasia

143

Carcinoma in Situ.

BM still intact. Invasive carcinoma goes through BM, and Metastatic carcinoma gets to the CT and bv's and spreads to other locations

144

Where do Glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and multi-adhesive glycoproteins come into play with connective tissue?

Main components of the GROUND SUBSTANCE
appears white on TEM, clear on LM

145

What are the 3 main components of Ground substance?

GAG's, MGP's, PG's

146

Build me a Proteoglycan out loud. What is special about GAG's?

GAG's bound to a protein core. GAG's Sulfated, VERY NEGATIVE, attract Na+ which attracts water to form a hydration shell around the proteoglycan.

147

Primary function of Proteoglycans. Why important?

Hydrate ECM & hold water in the CT. Important for cell motility, and establishing concentration gradients

148

What is a primary component of Cartilage ECM? Function?

Proteoglycan agregates are PG's connected to Haluronin with linker proteins (not sulfated but neg charged). Primary function of resisting compression as "shock absorbers"

149

Primary function of GAGS & PG's in BM?

Charge-based filtration

150

Proteins that run parallel to plasma membrane function of
1. ECM assembly/stabilization
2. Adhesion (fibroblast to ECM)
3. Mechanosensation
4. Regulate cell migration
What are 5 types?
What are integrins?

MGP's- Multi adhesive glyco proteins
1. fibronectin
2. laminin
3. tenascin
4. osteopontin
5. enactin/nidogen

INTEGRINS are transmembrane proteins that connect ACTIN to MGP's

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Fibronectin, Laminin, Tenascin, Osteopontin, Enactin/nidogen are all examples of what type of Protein?

MGP's Multi adhesive glyco proteins.

With INTEGRINS, MGP's form FOCAL ADHESIONS.
Focal adhesions are cell to matrix adhesions that transfer mechanical signals to ECM

152

Elastic Fiber distribution: Stain: Structure.

TEM looks like large BLACK stain with black granules surrounding it

Dermis (skin), Heart valves, Walls of large arteries, Lungs (alveolar walls). H&E with ORCEIN to distinguish between collagen fibers.
ELASTIN CORE- Fibrillin microfibrils

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Collagen. Structure, Function, Distribution. Where is it made? STAIN

Fibrils, Fibers, Bundles, STRENGTH

Found: Dermis, Hypodermis, fascia, Bones, ligament, tendons, joint capsules, sclera of Eye, dentin, organ/joint capsules

Made by Fibroblasts, EC's, Smooth Muscle cells, Schwann Cells (PNS).
Made outside the cell (extracellularly)
1. tropocollagen ordered alignment forms Fibril, bundle of fibrils makes a fiber, bundle of fibers makes bundle.
HE stain pink. TRICHROME- Green or blue

154

TEM shows striated fibers or groups of uniform polkadots

Collagen Type 1

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Type 2 Collagen Distribution:Function:Stain

TEM looks like fiberglass; NO BUNDLES

CARTILAGE & VITREOUS HUMOR
(articular cartilage, epiphyseal plates)
Strength & resists PG agregate expansion>resistance to pressure.
TYPE 2 turns slightly pink

LM looks like smooth glossed blue/pink fiberglass with clear bubbles. TEM looks like back side of unfinished fiberglass