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What are the four essential steps of effective public relations?

Research, planning, communication, measurement; R.O.P.E-- research, objectives, programming, evaluation


What is research?

Organized, systematic listening; essential to any PR activity or campaign


Is it cheaper to do research internally or externally?



What are some ways research is used?

To achieve credibility with management (internally-- make case for why you need more money; externally-- establish expertise), to define/segment publics (each public will have different communication), to formulate strategy, to test messages, to prevent crises, to monitor competition, to generate publicity ("One in ten doctors reccomend..."), to measure success


What is the value of research?

Provides discussion and debate of relevant topics within the academy; communication research helps practitioners save time, resources, and money


What is secondary research?

Any research that exists previously; existing information


What is primary research?

New original research


What is qualitative research?

Cannot be counted; exploratory, rich data, often not generalizable; soft data; open ended and unstructured questions, ex. focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation


What is quantitative research?

Can be counted; descriptive/explanatory, often generalizable; hard data; closed ended questions that requires focused choices; ex. mail surveys, phone calls


What are some techniques used when conducting research?

Organizational materials (previous reports), library and online databases, internet, content analysis (look at how media portrays organization, good/bad, who said what), interviews, focus groups (invite sample group to meet to talk, problem is that sample group can misrepresent the general public, 6-12 people + moderator), copy testing, scientific sampling methods


What is a population?

The widest possible parameters of people whose opinions you wish to study


What is a sample size?

A group that represents the population; usually a sample size of 250 to 500 people will provide data with a 5 to 6 % margin of error while a sample of 100 people will provide about a 10 % margin; the larger the sample size the smaller the margin of error


What is a non-probability sample?

Not everyone has an equal chance to be in the sample; ex. intercept (clipboard in the mall survey, not systematic), convenience (survey your class), purposive (interview with specific people)


What is a probability/random sample?

Everyone has an equal chance to be in the sample; ex. systematic, quota, proportional; most precise random sample is selected from list naming everyone in the target audience


What questions are asked prior to scientific research?

Who is the population?
How large is the sample?
Which sampling method will be used?
How will we contact the sample?
What will we ask and how will we ask it?
How will we analyze the information?


What are some examples of researching respondents?

Mail questionnaires (1 % return), telephone surveys, personal interviews (door to door), piggyback surveys (pay survey organizations for 1 or 2 questions, cheap but provides limited responses), web and email surveys


How do you increase the response rate?

-Mailed by a commercial firm to the general public
-Survey includes issues that the public think are relevant
-Mailed by an organization to its members


What is planning?

Must be strategic and systematic; involves the coordination of multiple methods; asks the question "Where do you want to take the organization?"; looks at a variety of different directions


What is MBO?

Management by objectives-- employees and management come to an agreement on how something will be judged, based of final outcome on objectives, ex. number of people that come to an event


What is Ketchum's Strategic Planning Model?

Facts, goals, audience, key message


What are the eight elements of program planning?

Situation, objectives (desired outcome), audience (research? demographics? who and why you're targeting), strategy (why campaign will achieve objectives, why _____ will work), tactics (specific activities), calendar/timetable (specific), budget (costs, employee time + out of pocket), measurement (evaluation)


What is a goal?

General, mission-orientated, not measurable, big picture, general statement of a direction we want to go


What is an objective?

Grows from goals, clear, measurable, addresses awareness, understanding, or behavior change


What do objectives do?

Help communicate and coordinate, serve as decision points, provide evaluative benchmark, CLEAR


What are output objectives?

What do we do


What are impact objectives?

How did the target audience change, impact on audience


Objectives should be.....

Clear and narrowly defined, linked to goals, linked to a specific public, linked to a specific outcome, linked to research (should come from somewhere, not made up), written explicitly and clearly, measurable, time defined, designed for a single public and a single response, not unrealistic


What is an awareness objective?

Lowest level of objective; attention, comprehension, retention


What is an acceptance objective?

Interest, attitude


What is an action objective?

Opinion, behavior