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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (73)
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1

What receptors participate in CICR?

Ryanodine receptors

2

Name a calcium buffering protein

calretinin

3

Mitochondria soak up excess Ca++ via the ______ and utilize it through ______ to stimulate Ca++ dependent citric acid cycle enzymes to make more ATP

Ca++ uniporter

Na+/Ca++ exchanger

4

____ and _____ can be ligands for nucleotide gated channels

cGMP and cAMP

5

When PLC acts on PIP2 and DAG, PIP2 goes on to activate _______, while IP3 goes on to activate ______

PKC

IP3 gated Ca++ channels

6

Which 4 receptors allow Ca++ into the cytosol?

Which 2 take it back out?

IP3 receptor, Ligand gated Ca++ channel, voltage gated Ca++ channel, ryanodine receptor

Na+/Ca++ exchanger, Ca++ pump. (Also Ca++ binding buffer proteins)

7

PKA is activated by:
CaMKII is activated by:
PKC is activated by:

cAMP
Ca++/Calmodulin
DAG, Ca++, and phosphatidyl serine. (Need all 3)

8

Arginine + _____ = ______ and ______

NO synthase
NO and Citrullene

9

NO synthase (NOS) is activated by:

Ca++/Calmodulin complex

10

How is NO degraded?

NO spontaneously oxidizes into a number of inactive metabolites

11

NO can directly modify proteins via

nitrosylation

12

Example of NO modifying a protein

it activated Guanylyl cyclase

13

Which two sites can CREB bind to?

CRE (cyclic AMP response element) and CaRE (Ca++ Response element)

14

Which 3 proteins can activate CREB?

MAPKinase, PKA, and CamKinase IV

15

What is NGF?

nerve growth factor

16

NGF is important for:

neuron survival, differentiation, and axon outgrowth

17

what 3 pathways can NGF stimulate?

PI 3 kinase, ras, or PLC

18

What kind of receptor is NGF?

RTK, receptor tyrosine kinase. Therefore it dimerizes upon ligand binding and autophosphorylates

19

Finish this pathway: NGF-->PI 3 kinase -->_______-->______

--->Akt kinase---> cell survival
(stops programmed cell death)

20

Finish this pathway--> NGF-->GEF-->_____-->_____-->____-->

Ras-->MAPK-->neuron growth and differentiation

21

Synaptic Plasticity –

experience-dependent changes in synaptic strength (increases or decreases in synaptic strength

22

as time between action potentials increases, facilitation _______

decreases

23

Synaptic depression is thought to arise from ________

synaptic vesicle depletion

24

Who worked with Aplysia?

Eric Kandel

25

Snail response decreasing over time is:

habituation

26

Which neuron contributes to sensitization in the snail?

modulatory/facilitatory interneuron

27

where does the modulatory neuron synapse?

the terminal of the siphon sensory neuron

28

Explain how short term sensitization works.

Serotonin release from facilitatory interneuron--> serotonin receptor--> G protein--> Adenylyl cyclase-->cAMP-->PKA-->closes K+ delayed rectifier channel--> increase AP duration--> increase Ca++ influx--> releases more NT to Motor neuron

29

Explain how LT sensitization works:

Trains of shocks lead to lots of serotonin release--> lots of free PKA-->CREB gets phosphorylated--> CREB increases Ubiquitin hydrolase production--> ubiquitin hydrolase degrades PKA reg. sub.--> PKA persistent activity.

Also, CREB enhances C/EBP production, which grows synapse

30

what is the chain of neurons in the hippocampus?

CA3 pyramidal, schaffer collaterals, CA1 pyramidal