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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (128)
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1

What does I cell disease involve, and what organelle is responsible

Accumulation of inclusion bodies inside cell
Golgi apparatus

2

What is the Golgi apparatus part of

The rough er

3

What is the function of the GA

Packaging and processing and modification of proteins and glycolipids

4

What is the general progression of the GA

Cis-medial-trans-trans Golgi network(TGN)

5

Are ribosomes found in the GA

No, there is no protein synthesis here

6

What are embedded on the cis-facing side of the GA

Glycosyltransferase
Sorting proteins

7

What is the function of glycosyltransferase

Addition or modification of sugar chains to create glyco-lipid/protein

8

What are the major functions of the GA

Lysosome formation
Secretory vesicle formation
Plasma membrane renewal

9

Where are hydrolase enzymes created

The rough er

10

What are the steps to sequestering the hydrolase enzymes after the rough er has created them

1)Mannose chain added in er
2)Transported to cis side GA
3)IN cis, mannose is capped with phosphate by glucose phosphotransferase
4)moved to TGN gathered by mannose-6 phosphate receptors and sent to lysosome

11

Which organelle exhibits CURL properties

The Golgi when sending hydrolase to lysosomes

12

If a vesicle does not have a phosphorylated mannose flag where is it destined for?

Plasma membrane, and the contents will be released to the ECM

13

What are the two types of exocytosis

Constitutive
Regulated

14

What is constitutive exocytosis

The default path for vesicles with no delay

15

What is regulated exocytosis

Vesicle is bound to the cytoskeleton and is not releases until the cell is stimulated

16

What are the causes of I cell disease

Failure to synthesize glucosamine phosphotransferase causing lysosomal enzymes to be excreted into the ECM and anything brought into the cell to not be broken down causing accumulation of inclusion bodies

17

I cell disease is a disease of what organelle

The Golgi apparatus

18

What is a hydrolase and what is its function

Hydrolase are digestive enzymes found in lysosomes
They cleave molecules by adding water

19

What is a primary lysosome

Newly formed and inactive lysosome with a homogenous interior

20

What is a secondary lysosome

A primary that has fused with an endosome and has a heterogenous interior making it active

21

How does the CURL function in lysosomes

Similar to endocytosis, the membrane receptors that cause the binding of the primary and the endosome

22

What happens to secondary lysosomes once they have absorbed materials to be digested

The digested materials leak out of the lysosome and the lysosome involutes into a multivesicular body and disappears

23

If a lysosome cannot digest a material what happens

The small vesicle will remain permanently and it's called an residual body

24

What is autophagy

Self digestion, part of the normal turnover of organelles, and receptors located on the plasma membrane.

25

What is heterophagy

Digestion of foreign materials

26

What are external operations

Extracellular digestion,
Can be from osteoclasts, or neutrophilic attack in defense

27

What is the importance of the lysosome having so am my different hydrolytic enzymes

So that it can digest any potential substrates

28

What are the symptoms of Tay-Sachs disease

Gradual onset of retarded neurological development
Increased head size
Cerebral and macular degeneration
Death by two years
Many lipid containing lysosomes

29

What is the causes of Tay- Sachs disease

The accumulation of lipids in cells due to missing Hex A enzyme

30

What are the symptoms of myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers

Myoclonus ( shock like contractions of some muscles)
Muscle weakness
Epilepsy
Gradually increasing levels of brain dysfunction
Deterioration of skeletal muscles