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Flashcards in Exam #2 Deck (44):
0

For the lumbar spine, give the following ROMs: 1.) Flexion 2.) Extension 3.) Side-bending

1.) 40-50˚ 2.) 20-30˚ 3.) 30˚ Lecture 11 video

1

What are the two main joint types of the lumbar spine?

1.) Zygapophoseal joints (facet joints): Synovial 2.) Intervertebral joints: Fibrocartilagenous joints Lecture 11 video

2

The lumbar spine vertebrae become (larger or smaller?) as you descend? Which lumbar vertebrae is the largest?

Becomes larger, L5 being the largest (largest in height and circumference) Lecture 11 video

3

The developing lumbar lordosis in children is resisted by the ______ muscle.

iliopsoas muscle Lecture 11 video

4

The superior articular facets of the lumbar spine are rotated ______˚ from the sagittal plane.

45˚

5

The superior articular facets of the lumbar spine are _____ and face primarily _____ and ______.

They are CONCAVE and face primarily MEDIALLY and BACKWARD. Lecture 11 video

6

The inferior articular facets of the lumbar spine are _____ and face _____ and _____.

They are CONVEX and face LATERALLY and FORWARD.

7

In terms of vertebral levels, define the: 1.) Anatomical lumbar spine 2.) Functional lumbar spine

1.) L1-L5 2.) T11-L5 Lecture 11 video

8

What is the Fergusun Angle? What is the normal value?

A line paralleling the top of the sacrum and a line drawn horizontally. Normal value is 35˚ *Video Lecture #11, 6:30*

9

What increases the Fergusun Angle?

Forward tipping of the sacrum

10

Lumbar lordosis is dependent upon the ________ ________.

Sacral base

11

Lumbosacral angle is influenced by __________.

Capsular tissue of the hip

12

An increase in lumbar lordosis correlates to what change in: 1.) Fergusun Angle? 2.) Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis?

1.) Increased Fergusun Angle. 2.) Increased cervical lordosis and thoracic kyphosis

13

1.) What muscle(s) is/are likely the cause of a posterior rotation of the ilium with subsequent loss of lordosis? 2.) Which other muscles would be affected and how?

1.) Shortening of the HAMSTRING MUSCLES 2.) Quads and IT band (stretching)

14

What muscle(s) could be responsible for low back pain AND pain in the posterior aspect of the shoulder?

Latissimus dorsi (hypertonia and tenderness)

15

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the iliopsoas muscle?

-Origin: Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and lateral aspect of lumbar vertebral bodies. -Insertion: Less trochanter of the femur -Action: Powerful hip flexor, weak lateral rotator of hip, *EXTENDS LUMBAR VERTEBRAL COLUMN (deepening the lumbar curve) to maintain posture*

16

What is the most important evaluation test for the iliopsoas? What does this test tell you?

Thomas Test: It indicates whether or not the iliopsoas is shortened.

17

What affect will a shortened iliopsoas have on the lumbar spine and hip?

A shortened iliopsoas will cause an INCREASED LORDOSIS and FLEXED HIP

18

1.) What affect will a shortened/hypertonic gluteus maximus have on the pelvis and lumbar spine? 2.) Hamstrings?

1.) Pull pelvis posteriorly, reduced lumbar lordosis (HYPOlordosis). 2.) Same

19

What affect will shortened/hypertonic quadriceps muscles have on the pelvis and lumbar spine?

Anteriorly rotated ileum/pelvis, increased lordosis

20

What type of somatic dysfunctions do erector spinae muscles bring about?

Type-I somatic dysfunctions

21

What muscle(s) bring about Type-II somatic dysfunctions?

Multifidus and rotatores

22

What are the contents of the multifidus triangle?

Multifidus muscles, L4-L5, intertransverse ligament, iliolumbar ligaments, and SI joint.

23

What are the most commonly ruptured discs?

Lumbar discs L4-L5.

24

What are the borders/boundaries of the Multifidus Triangle?

Spine of L4 to iliac crest and tip of sacrum

25

Which ligament(s) of the lumbar spine limit: 1.) Extension 2.) Flexion

1.) Anterior longitudinal ligament 2.) Posterior longitudinal ligament

26

Why are disc ruptures more likely in the lower lumbar segments?

Because the posterior longitudinal ligament NARROWS as it descends

27

1.) What is the pain referral pattern of the iliolumbar ligaments? 2.) What other anatomical structures/regions can refer pain to this area (4)?

1.) Anterior groin area 2.) Iliopsoas muscle, SI joint, hip pain, kidney

28

What dermatomal level refers pain to the anterior groin?

L1

29

At which lumbar spine levels does the greatest amount of flexion occur? How much occurs there (in a percentage)?

L4-L5 (20-25%), L5-S1 (60-75%) --> L4-S1 = 80-90% of flexion

30

What happens to intervertebral foramen (IVF) size during: 1.) Flexion 2.) Extension

1.) Larger 2.) Smaller

31

What is the normal value for lumbar side-bending?

20-25˚

32

What is the indication for a positive hip drop test (2)?

1.) <20-25˚ drop in iliac crest on ipsilateral side of knee drop 2.) Sharp angulation or absence of curve on contralateral side (non-weight bearing side)

33

In which direction is the spinous process rotating if the TP rotates left?

SP rotates right (counter-clockwise)

34

Regarding spinal mechanics, rotation occurs around which AXIS? and within which PLANE?

Rotation occurs around a VERTICAL AXIS, and within a HORIZONTAL PLANE.

35

Regarding spinal mechanics, sidebending occurs around which AXIS? and within which PLANE?

Sidebending occurs around an AP AXIS, and within a CORONAL PLANE.

36

The annulus fibrosis is thicker _____, and thinner _______.

Thicker ANTERIORLY, thinner POSTERIORLY

37

During flexion, the nucleus pulposus moves _______

Posteriorly

38

During sidebending to the right, the nucleus pulposus moves _____, i.e. TOWARDS or AWAY from the concavity?

Left (i.e. towards the CONCAVITY)

39

Decreased disc thickness causes an increased weight load on the ______ joint.

FACET joint

40

What is the most common direction of a disc herniation?

Posterolateral

41

In what bodily position is the most force directed on to an IV disc? Minimal amount of force?

Sitting = maximal force Lying down = minimal force

42

What activity puts the maximal load on L3?

Laughing

43

What motion of the lumbar spine results in decreased lordosis?

Forward flexion