For the lumbar spine, give the following ROMs: 1.) Flexion 2.) Extension 3.) Side-bending
1.) 40-50˚ 2.) 20-30˚ 3.) 30˚ Lecture 11 video
What are the two main joint types of the lumbar spine?
1.) Zygapophoseal joints (facet joints): Synovial 2.) Intervertebral joints: Fibrocartilagenous joints Lecture 11 video
The lumbar spine vertebrae become (larger or smaller?) as you descend? Which lumbar vertebrae is the largest?
Becomes larger, L5 being the largest (largest in height and circumference) Lecture 11 video
The developing lumbar lordosis in children is resisted by the ______ muscle.
iliopsoas muscle Lecture 11 video
The superior articular facets of the lumbar spine are rotated ______˚ from the sagittal plane.
The superior articular facets of the lumbar spine are _____ and face primarily _____ and ______.
They are CONCAVE and face primarily MEDIALLY and BACKWARD. Lecture 11 video
The inferior articular facets of the lumbar spine are _____ and face _____ and _____.
They are CONVEX and face LATERALLY and FORWARD.
In terms of vertebral levels, define the: 1.) Anatomical lumbar spine 2.) Functional lumbar spine
1.) L1-L5 2.) T11-L5 Lecture 11 video
What is the Fergusun Angle? What is the normal value?
A line paralleling the top of the sacrum and a line drawn horizontally. Normal value is 35˚ *Video Lecture #11, 6:30*
What increases the Fergusun Angle?
Forward tipping of the sacrum
Lumbar lordosis is dependent upon the ________ ________.
Lumbosacral angle is influenced by __________.
Capsular tissue of the hip
An increase in lumbar lordosis correlates to what change in: 1.) Fergusun Angle? 2.) Cervical lordosis, thoracic kyphosis?
1.) Increased Fergusun Angle. 2.) Increased cervical lordosis and thoracic kyphosis
1.) What muscle(s) is/are likely the cause of a posterior rotation of the ilium with subsequent loss of lordosis? 2.) Which other muscles would be affected and how?
1.) Shortening of the HAMSTRING MUSCLES 2.) Quads and IT band (stretching)
What muscle(s) could be responsible for low back pain AND pain in the posterior aspect of the shoulder?
Latissimus dorsi (hypertonia and tenderness)
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the iliopsoas muscle?
-Origin: Transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae and lateral aspect of lumbar vertebral bodies. -Insertion: Less trochanter of the femur -Action: Powerful hip flexor, weak lateral rotator of hip, *EXTENDS LUMBAR VERTEBRAL COLUMN (deepening the lumbar curve) to maintain posture*
What is the most important evaluation test for the iliopsoas? What does this test tell you?
Thomas Test: It indicates whether or not the iliopsoas is shortened.
What affect will a shortened iliopsoas have on the lumbar spine and hip?
A shortened iliopsoas will cause an INCREASED LORDOSIS and FLEXED HIP
1.) What affect will a shortened/hypertonic gluteus maximus have on the pelvis and lumbar spine? 2.) Hamstrings?
1.) Pull pelvis posteriorly, reduced lumbar lordosis (HYPOlordosis). 2.) Same
What affect will shortened/hypertonic quadriceps muscles have on the pelvis and lumbar spine?
Anteriorly rotated ileum/pelvis, increased lordosis
What type of somatic dysfunctions do erector spinae muscles bring about?
Type-I somatic dysfunctions
What muscle(s) bring about Type-II somatic dysfunctions?
Multifidus and rotatores
What are the contents of the multifidus triangle?
Multifidus muscles, L4-L5, intertransverse ligament, iliolumbar ligaments, and SI joint.
What are the most commonly ruptured discs?
Lumbar discs L4-L5.
What are the borders/boundaries of the Multifidus Triangle?
Spine of L4 to iliac crest and tip of sacrum