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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (107):
1

eukaryote supergroup that fungi belong to

Unikonta

2

fungi synapomorphies

-cell walls contain chitin
-absorptive nutrition

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secrete digestive enzymes that break down food then, absorb digested foods into cells

absorptive nutrition

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polysaccharide carbohydrate that fungi cell walls are made of

chitin

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-living off dead or decaying organic material

saprobes

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importance of fungi

-decomposers
-mutualistic symbionts:mycorrhizae
-parasites/pathogens
economically useful/important to people

7

around plant roots that provide water and nutrient absorption for plants, plants provide fungi with carbohydrates

mycorrhizae

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harmless symbiotic fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts- make toxins that deter herbivores and defend against pathogens

endophytes

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reproductive and non-productive structures composed of this; filamentous, string-like

hyphae

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body of fungus, mass of hyphae

mycelium

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type of hyphae that is divided

septate

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type of hyphae that is undivided

coenocyte

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appendages of parasitic fungi

haustoria

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-flagellated spore
-mostly aquatic aprobess or parasites

Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)

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-mostly in soil, coenocytic hypahe
-sporangia: asexual
-zygosporangia: sexual
-some form mycorrhizae
-common bread mold, Rhizopus

Zygomycota (zygomycetes)

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arbuscular mycorrhizae formed with plants

Glomeromycota

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-sac fungi and yeast
-conidia: asexual
-ascocarps: sexual
-all united by having ascus

Ascomycota (ascomycetes)

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sac containing ascospores

ascus

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sexual stage/fruiting body

ascocarp

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asexual spores in ascomycetes

conidia

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-fungi with photosynthetic symbiont; most are ascomycota
-can grow in extreme habitats
-important for soil formation

lichens

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-club fungi
-important decomposers
-mutualistic mycorrhizal relationships with plant roots
-asexual reproduction via fragmentation

Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes)

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large structure for sexual reproduction in basidiomycetes

basidiocarp

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-site of mitosis
-basidiospores extruded to outside

basidium

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importance of basidiomycota

-important decomposers
-some pathogens
-many mycorrhizae

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supergroup that consists of red algae, green algae, and land plants

Archaeplastida

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-unicelluar
-multicelluar: colonial, filamentous, thalloid

green algae

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-chloroplasts have thylakoids stacked in grana
-chlorophyll a & b
store starch
-cell walls made of cellulose

green algae and green plants

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land plant apomorphies

-apical meristems
-cuticle
-thick spore walls
-gametangia
-dependent embryos

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localized region of growth

apical meristems

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waxy covering that helps prevent desiccation

cuticle

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prevents desiccation

thick spore walls

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cases that enclose gametes and prevent desiccation

gametangia

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young sporophytes contained within protective structure; multicellular, parents provides nutrients

dependent embryos

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-mosses, liverworts, hornworts
-paraphyletic group
-gametophyte dominant
-motile sperm (needs water)

Bryophytes

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function in gas exchange and water retention

stomata

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duct system for conducting fluids and nutrients

vascular tissue

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-sporophyte dominant
-lignified vascular tissue
-shoots and roots

Tracheophytes

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-vascular tissue that conducts most of water and minerals and includes tracheids
-cells strengthened by lignin

xylem

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tube-shaped cells in xylem

tracheids

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vascular tissue that has cells arranged into tubes that distribute sugars, amino acids, and other organic products of photosynthesis

phloem

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organs that increase surface area of vascular plants

leaves

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leaves with single vein

microphylls

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leaves with highly branched vascular system

megaphylls

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modified leaves with sporangia

sporophylls

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clusters of sporangia on undersides of sporophylls

sori

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cone-like structures formed from groups of sporophylls

strobili

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-organs that anchor vscular plants
-enable vascular plants to absorb nutrients from the soil

roots

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-microphylls in whorls
-roost come out of rhizome

Spenophytes: horsetails

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-paraphyletic
-have true leaves and roots

ferns

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Sperrmatophyta synapomorphies

-seeds
-highly reduced gametophyte
-heterospory
-pollen and ovules

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consists of embryo and nutrients surrounded by protective coat

seed

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adaptive significance of seeds

1. protects embryo
2. nutrition of embryo
3. disperses embryo
4. dormancy mechanism

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evolution of two spores: male spores (microspores) and female spores (megaspores)

heterospory

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derived from microspores- male gametophyte enclosed within wall

pollen

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consists of megasporangium, megaspore (develops into female gametophyte) and one or more protective integuments

ovule

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have one integument

gymnosperm megasporangia

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have 2 integuments

angiosperm megasporangia

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4 clades of gymnosperms

1. Cycadophyta
2. Ginkgophyta
3. Gnetophyta
4. Coniferophyta

60

-most are evergreen and can carry photosynthesis year round
-needle like leaves conserve water

conifers

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Angiosperm synapomorphies

-flowers
-fruits
-carpel
-double fertilization with triploid endosperm

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specialized shoot with up to four types of modified leaves/ floral organs

flower

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encloses flower

sepals

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usually brightly colored and attract pollinators

petals

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produce pollen (male)

stamens

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produce ovules (female)

carpels

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stalk part of the stamen

filament

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sac part of the stamen where pollen is produced

anther

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part of carpal where pollen is received

stigma

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part of carpal leading up to stigma

style

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part at the base of the carpal

ovary

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contained within pollen grains produced by microsporangia of anthers

male gametophytes (angiosperms)

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develops within ovule contained within ovary at base of stigma

female gamteophyte -embryo sac (angiosperms)

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pollen grain that has landed on stigma germinates and pollen tube of male gametophyte grows down ovary- sperm enters through micropyle

1st stage of angiosperm life cycle

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occurs when pollen tube discharges 2 sperm into female gametophyte within ovule

double fertilization

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one sperm fertilizes egg, other combines with 2 nuclei in central cell of female gametophyte and initiates development of food-storing endosperm

3rd stage of angiosperm life cycle

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two seed leaves of embryo within seed

cotyledons

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nutritive tissue in seeds of angiosperms

triploid endosperm

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seed development

after double fertilization, ovule develops into seed, ovary develops into fruit enclosing seed

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transfer of pollen from anther to stigma

pollination

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joint evolution of interacting species in response to natural selection imposed by each other

coevolution

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plant's ability to reject its own pollen

self-incompatibility

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mature ovary

fruit

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-one cotyledon
-parallel leaf venation
-atactostele
-fibrous root system
-pollen grain with one opening
-floral organs in multiples of 3

monocots

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-two cotyledons
-netlike leaf venation
-vascular tissue arranged in ring
-taproot
-pollen grain with three openings
-floral organs in multiples of 4 or 5

eudicots

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functions of roots

-anchoring plant
-absorbing minerals and water
-storing organic nutrients

87

thin lateral roots with no main root

fibrous root system

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one main vertical root that gives rise to lateral roots, or branch roots

taproot system

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where absorption of water and minerals occurs near; vast number of these increase surface area

root hairs

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-organ consisting of alternating system of nodes
-function is to maximize photosynthesis by leaves

stem

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points at which leaves are attached

nodes

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segments between nodes

internodes

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main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants

leaf

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joins leaf to node of stem

petiole

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embryonic tissue, allow for indeterminate growth

meristems

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located at tips of roots and shoots and at axillary buds of shoots

apical meristems

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apical meristems elongate shoots and roots

primary growth

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-lateral meristems add thickness to woody plants
-characteristic of gymnosperms and woody eudicots, but not monocots

secondary growth

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parts of the root andd shoot systems produced by apical meristems that primary growth produces

primary plant body

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what root tip is covered by, protects apical meristem as root pushes through soil

root cap

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dome-shaped mass of dividing cells at shoot tip

shoot apical meristem

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where leaves develop from along sids of apical meristem

leaf primordia

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develops from meristematic cells at bases of leaf primordia

axillary buds

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type of lateral meristem that adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem and secondary phloem

vascular cambium

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type of lateral meristem that replaces epidermis with periderm

cork cambium

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consists of tissues produced by vascular cambium and cork cambium

secondary plant body

107

-cylinder of meristematic cells one cell layer thick
-develops from undifferentiated cells

vascular cambium