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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (37):
1

________ induces training adaptations by progressively increasing intensity, frequency and/or duration of training

Overload

2

Training volume=

intensity*frequency*duration

3

Exercise training specificity refers to adaptations in metabolic and physiologic functions that depend not only on ________ volume but also on the type and mode of _________ imposed

Training
Overload

4

T/F
Sport specific activity elects specific central and peripheral adaptations that facilitate improved performance in that activity

True

5

T/F
Most effective evaluation of sport specific performance occurs when measurement most closely stimulates the actual activity

True

6

SAID principle

Specific
Adaptations to
Imposed
Demands

7

When training for specific ______ activities, overload must engage appropriate muscles required by the activity and provide exercise at an _______ sufficient to stress the ___________ system

Aerobic
Intensity
Cardiovascular

8

T/F
The greatest improvement occurs when test exercise duplicates training exercise(specificity)

True

9

Greater blood flow in active tissues results from:
-________ microcirculation(higher capillary:fiber ratio)
-More effective redistribution of _____ output
-the combined effect of both factors

Increased
Cardiac

10

Specificity principle
-_________ occur only in specifically trained muscles and become apparent in exercise that activates this _________

Adaptations
Musculature

11

Adaptations to training are

Mode specific

12

Adaptations
- Musculature specific to the exercise mode must be _______ in movement patterns specific to activty

stressed

13

Individual difference principle

All individuals do not respond similarly to a given training stimulus

14

Individual differences principle
- Different _____, nutritional, environmental, and epigenetic influences affect both the rate of and potential for _________

Genetic
Improvement

15

Reversibilty principle
- Only 1 or 2 weeks of ________ reduces both metabolic and exercise capacity
- Many training improvements are fully ____ within several months

Detraining
Lost

16

Reversibility principle
- _______ in VO2max track closely with:
-Declines in Qmax and SV
-Capillary _____ loss

Decline
Density

17

4 categories diverse physiologic and metabolic factors related to O2 transport and use:

Ventilation- aeration
Central blood flow
peripheral blood flow
Active muscle metabolism

18

Trained muscle exhibits enhanced capacity to _____ carbohydrate during maximal exercise

Oxidize

19

Reduced carbohydrate as fuel and increased fatty acid combustion in sub maximal exercise, results from
- ________ muscle glycogen use
- Reduced ______ production
- _______ use of plasma-borne glucose by exercising muscle

Decreased
Glucose
Reduced

20

T/F
Endurance athletes have larger slow oxidative fibers than fast oxidative and fast glycolytic fibers in the same muscle

True

21

Slow oxidative fibers with high capacity to generate ___ aerobically contain large quantities of ______

ATP
Myoglobin

22

Training _______ the potential to regulate blood during _________ activity via hepatic gluconeogenesis

Increases
Prolonged

23

Long term ______ training increases hearts mass and _______ with greater left ventricular end diastolic volumes during ____ and exercise

Aerobic
Volume
Rest

24

This normal training adaptation differs from myocardial _________ due to pathological conditions

Enlargement

25

Training induced cardiac enlargement is characterized by eccentric ________ and concentric hypertrophy

Hypertrophy

26

Endurance athletes average __% larger heart volume than sedentary counterparts

25

27

T/F
Myocardial overload increases protein synthesis

True

28

Adaptations to endurance training are primarily ______ whereas resistance training adaptations are ______

Eccentric
Concentric

29

A pathological hypertrophied heart is an ________, distended, functionally inadequate organ unable to deliver blood sufficient for ______ requirements

Enlarged
Resting

30

_______ heart does not represent a dysfunctional organ. Rather it demonstrates normal systolic and diastolic functions and superior functional capacity

Athletes

31

T/F
Plasma Volume Expansion(PVX) occurs early in endurance training

True

32

Increased eryrocyte volume occurs ____ in training

Later

33

PVX enhances ________ reserve and increases end diastolic volume, stroke volume, O2 transport, VO2max, and _______ regulation during exercise

Circulatory
Temperature

34

Resting bradycardia

Heart rate less than 60 beats per min

35

Changes in _____ volume account for much of the changes in VO2max and Qmax

Stoke

36

The limiting factor to maximal rate of cellular respiration in skeletal muscle is ______ supply(blood flow) and not use

Oxygen

37

Pulmonary adaptation with training
- Training _______ the metabolic cost of ventilation during _______ exercise as reflected by lower ventilate equivalents for oxygen

Decreases
Submaximal