Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (61):
When it comes to instruments which is better, Pakistan or German?
Can you mix Pakistan and German instruments when cleaning and/or in packs?
What does a general surgery pack include?
towel clamps, tissue forceps, thumb forceps, scissors, needle holders, scalpel handle, allis tissue forceps, rochester carmalts
What kind of tissue forceps come in a general surgery pack?
Kelly, Crile, and Mosquito
What kind of thumb forceps come in a general surgery pack?
Brown, Adson, and rat tooth
What are tissue forceps used for?
clamp and hold tissue
What are Hemostatic forceps used for?
clamping tissue and/or vessels for clamping, crushing and holding blood vessels for hemostats
What are needle holders used for?
hold curved suture needles during suturing, perform instrument ties, and attach scalpel blade to handles
What are scissors used for?
to cut certain material
What type of scissors are there?
mayo, metzenbaum, bandage, iris, tenotomy, suture
What are towel clamps used for?
to attach towels and drapes to patient
What are retractors used for?
used rather than hands to retract tissues and provide good visibility
What are suction tips used for?
to remove excess fluid/ blood
How does stapling compare to suturing?
its easier and faster
What must you do when removing staples?
use a staple remover
When should you collect a fecal sample?
Why is it important to have a fresh fecal sample?
so the parasites are fresh
How much feces do you need for a sample?
about a teaspoon
How can you collect a fecal sample?
pick it up off the ground, use a loop, or gloved finger
What is a way to collect a fecal sample in a feedlot setting?
When the owner of the patient is collecting a fecal sample what should they bring it in?
an airtight container
What should the owner of the patient do if they cannot bring the sample in right away?
store in the fridge
What should you do with a fresh sample?
examine within a few hours or refrigerate
What should you look for when examining a fecal sample?
color, odor, consistency, blood, mucus, parasites
Where are anal sacs located?
4 and 8 o' clock on either side of rectum
What is the purpose of anal sacs?
scent glands for marking
What are some problems that can happen with anal sacs?
inflammation, impaction, infection
What are some clinical signs of problems with anal sacs?
scooting, pain, don't want it touched, inflammed
How can you treat anal sacs?
internally or externally express them, change diet
What animal has the most issues with anal sacs?
What are some reasons to do an enema?
constipation, ate something bad, prior to GI radiograph study, heatstroke, hypothermia
What are the most common reasons to do an enema?
constipation and prior to GI radiograph study
What is an important thing to know when using enemas to treat heatstroke or hypothermia?
don't make the water too hot or too cold
What are some enema contraindications?
acute abdomen or decreased bowel viability
What is constipation?
What supplies are needed when performing enemas?
gloves, lube, enema bag, solution, somewhere easy to clean, restrainer, forceps to clamp tubing, tubing, enema tip or foley catheter
What are some enema solutions?
Isotonic and hypertonic
Why should the enema solution be gentle and mild?
to prevent dehydration and electrolyte imbalances
What is the best way to get the solution in the colon during an enema?
How long should you do an enema?
until stool is clear or animal has had enough
What should be avoided when performing enemas?
rapid injection of large volumes of solutions and trapping fluid in rectum
What happens when you use fast flow in or overload the animal during an enema?
can cause reverse flow vomiting
What are the ways drugs can be administered?
Parenterally, Orally, and Injection
What is Parenteral?
anything but GI
What are some parenteral routes?
SQ, IM, IV, ID, IP, IO
What is IP?
Intraperitoneal (into peritoneum)
What is IO?
Intraosseous (into bone marrow)
Why would you need to inject in the bone marrow?
for emergencies, can't find a vein, too small to get a catheter
What animals are cephalic venipuncture performed?
cats and dogs
What animals are jugular venipunctures performed?
dog, cat, ruminant, and horse
What animals are saphenous venipuncture performed?
cats and dogs
What does extravasation mean?
outside the vein
What would cause a vessel to collapse?
too much pressure on plunger of syringe or too much tension placed on skin
What supplies do you need to perform venipuncture?
alcohol, gauze, needle, syringe, clippers, white tape, vacutainers, restrainer
Where do you occlude the vessel for a jugular venipuncture?
Where do you occlude the vessel for a cephalic venipuncture?
by the elbow
Where do you insert the needle for venipuncture?
Stay as far from the heart as you can so you can move up and re-insert needle if needed
What should you do when doing a SQ injection in cattle?
use caution with needle and know where the chute is
Why do we not give vaccines to animals until a certain age?
need to wait until maternal antibodies are gone. Vaccine won't work until a certain age
Why do we give vaccines in the same location when we administer?
So we know what vaccine was given if theres ever a problem