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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (47):
1

Celcius to Fahrenheit Formula

Tf = (9/5)*Tc+32

2

Fahrenheit to Celcius Formula

Tc = (5/9)*(Tf-32)

3

Celcius to Kelvin Formula

Tk = Tc + 273.15

4

Ratio between two units of temperature

(T-Tf)/(Tb-Tf) where
T is temperature
Tf is freezing point of water
Tb is boiling point of water

5

Triple Point

The point in which all three phases exist at a certain temperature and pressure.

6

Linear Thermal Expansion Formula

ΔL = α*Lo*ΔT where
α is the coefficient of linear expansion
Lo is the original linear dimension

7

Symbol for Heat

Q

8

Equations for Heat

Q = mcΔT
Q = nCΔT

9

What is the difference between c and C?

c is the specific heat of a substance.
C is the molar heat capacity of a substance.

10

When is Q positive or negative?

Q is positive when heat is added to a body.
Q is negative when heat is removed from a body.

11

Equation for Heat during a Phase Change

Q = ±mL where
L is the heat of fusion, vaporization, or sublimation of an object.

12

Formula for Heat Current (Conduction)

H = k*A*((Th-Tc)/L) where
k is the thermal conductivity of the material
A is the area through which the heat flows
Th is the hot temperature
Tc is the cold temperature
L is the length of the heat-flow path

13

What is the relationship between Heat and Heat Current?

H = dQ/dt

14

What are the three types of heat transfer?

Conduction
Convection
Radiation

15

Formula for Radiation heat transfer

R = L/k where
k is the thermal conductivity of the material
L is the length of the heat-flow path

16

Ideal-gas Equation

PV=nRT where
R is a constant

17

What is the value of the constant R?

8.314 J / mol. K

18

Formula for Translational Kinetic Energy of a Gas as a Whole

Ktr = (3/2)*nRT

19

Formula for Translational Kinetic Energy of a Molecule

(1/2)*mv^2 = (3/2)*kT where
k is the Boltzmann constant

20

What is the value of the Boltzmann constant?

1.380*10^23

21

What is the molar heat capacity for a monatomic gas?

Cv = (3/2)*R

22

What is the molar heat capacity for a diatomic gas?

Cv = (5/2)*R

23

What is the molar heat capacity for a monatomic solid?

Cv = 3R

24

Formula for Work in a Thermodynamic Process

W = PΔV
W = ∫P dV from V1 to V2

25

What is the symbol for change in internal energy?

ΔU

26

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

If object A is in thermal equilibrium with object B, and object B is in thermal equilibrium with object C, then object A is in thermal equilibrium with object C.

27

First Law of Thermodynamics

The total energy in a closed system is constant

28

Formula for First Law of Thermodynamics

ΔU = Q - W where
ΔU is change in internal energy
Q is heat
W is work

29

What are the kinds of thermodynamic processes?

Adiabatic
Isochoric
Isobaric
Isothermal

30

What is an adiabatic process?

A process where there is no heat transfer but pressure and volume change.

31

What is an isochoric process?

A process in which volume is constant but pressure changes.

32

What is an isobaric process?

A process in which pressure is constant but volume changes.

33

What is an isothermal process?

A process in which temperature remains constant.

34

What is the difference between Cp and Cv?

Cp is the specific heat capacity of a substance at constant pressure.
Cv is the specific heat capacity of a substance at constant volume.

35

The is the relationship between Cp and Cv?

Cp = Cv + R

36

What is the ratio of heat capacities?

γ = Cp/Cv

37

What is are the formulas for work in an ideal process?

W = nCvΔT
W = (Cv/R)*Δ(PV)
W = (1/γ-1)*Δ(PV)

38

What is the difference between a reversible and irreversible process?

A reversible process is one whose direction can be reversed by a minimal change in the conditions of the process.
All other thermodynamic processes are irreversible.

39

What is the formula for the equipartition theorem?

U=(1/2)*f*Nkt where
f is 3 for monatomic processes and 5 for diatomic processes

40

Formula for Work done by a Heat Engine

W = |Qh|-|Qc|

41

Formula for efficiency of a Heat Engine

η = W/Qh = 1-|Qc/Qh|

42

Formula for efficiency of an Otto Cycle

η = 1-(1/r^(γ-1)) where
r is the compression ratio
γ is the ratio of heat capacities

43

What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

Total entropy in an isolated system can never decline.

44

Formula for Efficiency of the Carnot Cycle

η = 1-(Tc/Th) = (Th-Tc)/Th

45

What is Entropy?

Entropy is the quantitative measure of randomness or disorder of a system.

46

Formula for Entropy

ΔS = ∫ dQ/T = Q/T where
Q is heat
T is absolute temperature

47

Formula for Compression Ratio

r = Vmax/Vmin