Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (47):

1

## Celcius to Fahrenheit Formula

### Tf = (9/5)*Tc+32

2

## Fahrenheit to Celcius Formula

### Tc = (5/9)*(Tf-32)

3

## Celcius to Kelvin Formula

### Tk = Tc + 273.15

4

## Ratio between two units of temperature

###
(T-Tf)/(Tb-Tf) where

T is temperature

Tf is freezing point of water

Tb is boiling point of water

5

## Triple Point

### The point in which all three phases exist at a certain temperature and pressure.

6

## Linear Thermal Expansion Formula

###
ΔL = α*Lo*ΔT where

α is the coefficient of linear expansion

Lo is the original linear dimension

7

## Symbol for Heat

### Q

8

## Equations for Heat

###
Q = mcΔT

Q = nCΔT

9

## What is the difference between c and C?

###
c is the specific heat of a substance.

C is the molar heat capacity of a substance.

10

## When is Q positive or negative?

###
Q is positive when heat is added to a body.

Q is negative when heat is removed from a body.

11

## Equation for Heat during a Phase Change

###
Q = ±mL where

L is the heat of fusion, vaporization, or sublimation of an object.

12

## Formula for Heat Current (Conduction)

###
H = k*A*((Th-Tc)/L) where

k is the thermal conductivity of the material

A is the area through which the heat flows

Th is the hot temperature

Tc is the cold temperature

L is the length of the heat-flow path

13

## What is the relationship between Heat and Heat Current?

### H = dQ/dt

14

## What are the three types of heat transfer?

###
Conduction

Convection

Radiation

15

## Formula for Radiation heat transfer

###
R = L/k where

k is the thermal conductivity of the material

L is the length of the heat-flow path

16

## Ideal-gas Equation

###
PV=nRT where

R is a constant

17

## What is the value of the constant R?

### 8.314 J / mol. K

18

## Formula for Translational Kinetic Energy of a Gas as a Whole

### Ktr = (3/2)*nRT

19

## Formula for Translational Kinetic Energy of a Molecule

###
(1/2)*mv^2 = (3/2)*kT where

k is the Boltzmann constant

20

## What is the value of the Boltzmann constant?

### 1.380*10^23

21

## What is the molar heat capacity for a monatomic gas?

### Cv = (3/2)*R

22

## What is the molar heat capacity for a diatomic gas?

### Cv = (5/2)*R

23

## What is the molar heat capacity for a monatomic solid?

### Cv = 3R

24

## Formula for Work in a Thermodynamic Process

###
W = PΔV

W = ∫P dV from V1 to V2

25

## What is the symbol for change in internal energy?

### ΔU

26

## Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

### If object A is in thermal equilibrium with object B, and object B is in thermal equilibrium with object C, then object A is in thermal equilibrium with object C.

27

## First Law of Thermodynamics

### The total energy in a closed system is constant

28

## Formula for First Law of Thermodynamics

###
ΔU = Q - W where

ΔU is change in internal energy

Q is heat

W is work

29

## What are the kinds of thermodynamic processes?

###
Adiabatic

Isochoric

Isobaric

Isothermal

30

## What is an adiabatic process?

### A process where there is no heat transfer but pressure and volume change.

31

## What is an isochoric process?

### A process in which volume is constant but pressure changes.

32

## What is an isobaric process?

### A process in which pressure is constant but volume changes.

33

## What is an isothermal process?

### A process in which temperature remains constant.

34

## What is the difference between Cp and Cv?

###
Cp is the specific heat capacity of a substance at constant pressure.

Cv is the specific heat capacity of a substance at constant volume.

35

## The is the relationship between Cp and Cv?

### Cp = Cv + R

36

## What is the ratio of heat capacities?

### γ = Cp/Cv

37

## What is are the formulas for work in an ideal process?

###
W = nCvΔT

W = (Cv/R)*Δ(PV)

W = (1/γ-1)*Δ(PV)

38

## What is the difference between a reversible and irreversible process?

###
A reversible process is one whose direction can be reversed by a minimal change in the conditions of the process.

All other thermodynamic processes are irreversible.

39

## What is the formula for the equipartition theorem?

###
U=(1/2)*f*Nkt where

f is 3 for monatomic processes and 5 for diatomic processes

40

## Formula for Work done by a Heat Engine

### W = |Qh|-|Qc|

41

## Formula for efficiency of a Heat Engine

### η = W/Qh = 1-|Qc/Qh|

42

## Formula for efficiency of an Otto Cycle

###
η = 1-(1/r^(γ-1)) where

r is the compression ratio

γ is the ratio of heat capacities

43

## What is the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

### Total entropy in an isolated system can never decline.

44

## Formula for Efficiency of the Carnot Cycle

### η = 1-(Tc/Th) = (Th-Tc)/Th

45

## What is Entropy?

### Entropy is the quantitative measure of randomness or disorder of a system.

46

## Formula for Entropy

###
ΔS = ∫ dQ/T = Q/T where

Q is heat

T is absolute temperature

47