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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (22):
1

Function of oral cavity, salivary glands, pharynx, and esophagus

physically break down and lubricate food--> food bolus
initial breakdown of sugars (amylase) and fats (lipase)
Kill parasites (IgA, lysozyme)

2

Function of stomach

Chemically break down food (proteins) at low pH
Kill parasires (at low pH)

3

Function of small intestines with enzymes from pancreas

Chemically break down food (peptides, sugars, fats) and absorb products

4

Large intestine

Reabsorb water and electrolytes, store and eliminate feces

5

How often are epithelial cells renewed?

Every 1-3 days

6

The ______ is connected to the stomach through the lower _____ _____

The ESOPHAGUS is connected to the stomach through the lower ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.

7

What is the bottom of the stomach connected to?

connected to the duodenum (proximal part of the intestine) through another sphincter called pyloris.

8

What is the cardia and what does it secrete?

The cardia is the upper portion of the stomach where the esophagus connects. It secretes mucus and
bicarbonate.

9

What is the function of the fundus and corpus?

to secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) from parietal cells and pepsinogen (a precursor of the digestive enzyme
pepsin) from chief cells.

10

What is the function of the antrum?

Motility- physically mix the stomach content through its motility.

11

receptive relaxation

stomach can extend to accommodate food after a meal and avoid reflux into the
esophagus.

12

Acute large bowel distention (colonic pseudo-obstruction

Feces is not passed through the colon, accumulates, and becomes hard

13

Achalasia: esophageal motility disorder due to

Inability of lower esophageal sphincter to relax
Loss of peristalsis in esophagus
(genetic disorder)

14

Impaired/delayed gastric emptying due to

Postsurgical disorders (e.g. vagotomy = resection of vagus nerve)
Diabetic gastroparesis

15

drugs stimulating gastrointestinal motility (prokinetic agents)

Cholinomimetic agonists
Dopamine (D2) receptor antagonists
Macrolides

16

Cholinomimetic agonists

Mimic ACh
These drugs mimic the parasympathetic effect of the ANS

17

Dopamine (D2) receptor antagonists

Prevent inhibition of cholinergic smooth muscle stimulation by activated D2 receptors

18

Macrolides

Stimulate motilin receptors

19

2 drugs that are cholinomimetic agents

Bethanechol
Neostigmine

20

MOA of Bethanechol

ACh agonist that binds to and activates muscarinic ACh M3 receptors
→ increased GI motility
Was used against GERD and gastroparesis (rarely due to other cholinergic side effects)

21

MOA of neostigmine

AChE inhibitor
→ increased cholinergic transmission and increased GI motility
Used IV to treat acute large bowel distention

22

D2 receptor antagonist drug

Metoclopramide