Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (122)
Zones of the mesoderm
Paraxial: thick column of mesoderm closest to and parallel with the notochord. Becomes segmented into somites
Intermediate: narrow column of mesoderm that is lateral to the paraxial mesoderm and gives rise to urogenital system
Lateral plate: thin plate of mesoderm lateral to intermediate mesoderm and splits to form lining of body cavities and mesoderm of most internal organs as well as limbs
initial pairs of segments of mesenchyme that develop in the paraxial mesoderm
new ones are added caudally as the primitive streak regresses
11 pairs are kept at the caudal end
after 20 pairs of somitomeres have formed, the first somite form caudal to the 7th pair of somitomeres at the expense of the 8th.
Wavefront mechanism in somite differentiation
FGF-8 is increased in posterior primitive streak
RA is increased anteriorly and opposes FGF-8
this balance results in the cessation of somitogenesis
Mesp-2 is expressed because of this balance
Segmental clock and somite differentiation
At critical locations that will divide adjacent somites, lunatic fringe becomes concentrated at the future anterior border
C-hairy becomes concentrated at the future posterior border
Cells at the anterior border of an established somite express Eph A (receptor) and posterior cells express Eph B (ligand) creating a fissure.
Steps in somite differentiation
Formation of somitocoel
Formation of sclerotome
formation of dermomyotome and then separation into dorsal and ventral
Dorso-lateral part of a somite
Shh from notochord and Wnt from dorsal neural tube create balance that makes myotome commit to myogenetic lineage
Noggin inhibits BMP-4 which would normally inhibit myogenesis
BMP-4 suppresses myogenesis in verntrolateral dermomyotome and stimulates cells to migrate to limb bud
FGF from myotome signals production of scleraxis which causes formation of syndetome, the precursor of tendons
Associated with the formation of the pronephros and mesonephros
Responds to BMP and activin -> becomes intermediate mesoderm -> expresses Pax2
Cranial and caudal extent is dependent on expression of Hox4 - Hox11
Which cells form the outflow tract of the heart?
Cells migrating through the anterior primitive streak
Which cells form the ventricles of the heart?
Cells migrating through the middle of the primitive streak
Which cells form the atria of the heart?
Cells migrating through the posterior primitive streak
Early heart formation
BMPs and FGFs act on the anterior visceral endoderm and cause the commitment to the heart-forming pathway.
Cells of the cardiac crescent (cells that migrated through the primitive streak) then express Nkx2-5, MEF2 and GATA4 which are necessary for heart formation.
What does the cardiogenic plate arise from?
Which layer of a cardiac tube forms the myocardium?
Which layer of a cardiac tube forms the endocardium?
What is the source of pericardium and myocardial fibroblasts?
What circulatory arcs are present in a 4 week embryo?
Vitelline arc - vitelline vessels
Allantoic arc - allantoic vessels
Embryonic arc - dorsal aorta, aortic arches, anterior cardinal vein, common cardinal veins, posterior cardinal veins, atrium, ventricle and ventral aorta
Amnion (inner cell mass: epiblast derivative)
Yolk sac (inner cell mass: hypoblast derivative)
Chorion (part of fetal maternal interface)
Allantois (inner cell mass: interfaces with placenta via umbilical cord)
What makes up the fetal-maternal interface?
Placenta (trophoblast derivative)
Chorion (trophoblast derivative)
Previllous embryo (placenta)
No villi have been formed on the trophoblast
Primary villous stage (placenta)
Solid, cytotrophoblastic, ectodermal primary villi appear
Secondary villous stage (placenta)
Mesodermal cores appear within the primary villi
Tertiary villous stage (placenta)
Characterized by the appearance of blood vessels within the mesenchymal core of the secondary villi
Final development of the placenta
Cytotrophoblastic shells formed by the expansion of the columns over maternal decidual cells
Maternal-Fetal blood flow pattern
Maternal blood enters intervillous space from spiral arteries
Exchange of materials between maternal blood in lacunae and fetal blood in the capillaries in the villi
Maternal blood retruns to maternal veins in the decidua basalis
Fetal blood travels to capillary beds within the placental villi via umbilical arteries and returns via umbilical vein
Functions of the placenta
Diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Diffusion of foodstuffs
Excretion of waste products
Early vs late placenta
Early: thick, low permeability, small surface area, minimal diffusion
Late: thin, high permeability, large surface area, increase in diffusion
Why can oxygenation occur despite the low pressure gradient between mother and fetus?
Fetal Hb has a higher affinity for oxygen
Fetal blood Hb concentration is 50% greater
Bohr effect (pH)
Human Chorionic Gonasotropin
Secreted by syncytial trophoblasts into maternal fluids
starts 8-9 days after ovulation
max secretion 10-12 wks of pregnancy