Exam #2: Neoplasia Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam #2: Neoplasia Deck (43):
1

What is the definition of neoplasia? What are the two causes of neoplasia?

This is the process of uncontrolled growth caused by:
- Uncontrolled proliferation
- Evasion of apoptosis

2

What is a neoplasm?

Abnormal tissue mass

3

What are the common features of neoplasms? What is the general progression of neoplasia?

1) Neoplasms are NOT physiology; they are pathological & purposeless
2) Loss of control over cell division
3) DNA damage at growth control genes i.e. checkpoints

Carcinogens-->DNA damage-->Neoplasm

4

What is the difference between benign and a malignant tumor?

Benign= neoplasm that grows WITHOUT INVADING adjacent tissue & spreading to distant sites
- Well circumscribed capsule

Malignant= neoplasm INVADES surrounding normal tissue & spreads to distant sites
- Poorly defined capsule

*****If you see the word INVASION, the tumor is NOT benign; if you see metastasis, MALIGNANT

5

What is an intermediate neoplasm?

This is a neoplasm that is between benign and malignant b/c
- Locally invasive i.e. NOT benign
- No metastasis

6

What is carcinoma in situ?

Dysplasia
- Pre-invasive cell proliferation
- Has cytological features of malignancy

7

What are the two components of a tumor?

1) Parenchyma
2) Stroma

8

What is the parenchyma? What does the parenchyma determine?

Clonal neoplastic cells that:
- Determines the biological behavior of the tumor
- Gives the tumor its name

9

What is the stroma? What does the stroma determine?

Stoma= the support cells of a tumor
- Connective tissue
- Blood vessels
- Macrophages & lymphocytes

****These determine the growth and evolution of the tumor

10

What determines the growth and evolution of a tumor, its parenchyma or stroma?

Stroma

11

What is the difference between a neoplasm that contains a high degree of stroma vs. a low degree of stroma?

Scant stroma= soft & fleshy

Abundant stroma= hard

12

What is the name of a benign epithelial neoplasm?

Adenoma or,
Papilloma

13

What is the difference between an adenoma and a papilloma?

Adenoma= gland
Papilloma= not from gland

14

What is the name of a malignant epithelial tumor?

Carcinoma

15

What is an adenocarcinoma?

Malignant glandular carcinoma

16

What is the suffix given to benign mesenchymal neoplasms?

Oma

17

What is the suffix given to malignant mesenchymal neoplasms?

Sacrcoma

18

What is a Fibroma?

Benign fibroblast neoplasm

19

What is a Chondroma?

Benign cartilagenous neoplasm

20

What is an Osteoma?

Benign osteoblast neoplasm

21

What is a Lipoma?

Benign adipose tumor

22

What is aLeiomyoma?

Benign smooth muscle neoplasm

23

What is a Cystadenomas?

Bengin glandular neoplasm with a cyst

24

What is a polyp? Is a polyp benign or malignant?

Club-shaped growth that projects from the lumen into a hallow viscus

****Does not distinguish between benign and malignant

25

What is a Papilloma?

Benign tumor of the skin i.e. a wart

26

What are the exceptions to the "oma" suffix i.e. what are the malignant tumors that end in the suffix oma?

Melanoma
Lymphoma
Seminoma*
Hepatoma
Astrocytoma

*Germ-cell tumor of the testicle

27

What are the non-neoplastic lesions that end with the suffix oma?

- Granuloma
- Hematoma
- Hamartoma
- Choristoma

28

What is a Choristoma?

Normal tissue in an abnormal location

E.g. adrenal cells in ovary, lungs, or kidney

29

What is a hamartoma?

Normal tissue in normal place that is disorganized

E.g. pulmonary hamartoma & Peutz-Jeghers polyp

30

What are the common features of carcinomas and sarcomas?

- Capsule generally absent
- Rapid growth
- Invasion present
- Atypical mitosis present

31

What are the differences between sarcoma and carcinoma? Specifically address, origin, incidence, metastasis, & prognosis.

1) Carcinoma= epithelial & Sarcoma= mesenchymal
2) Carcinoma has higher incidence
3) Metastasis is lymphatic in carcinoma and hematogenous in sarcoma
4) Better prognosis because of later distant metastasis in carcinoma

32

What is a transitional cell carcinoma?

Malignant neoplasm that takes its origin from transitional epithelium of the urinary system

33

What are the specific names given to blood cancer?

Leukemia
Lymphoma

34

What is Leukemia? What Leukemias are most common in children in adults?

Cancer derived from hematopoietic cells i.e. bone marrow stem cells
- CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) is most common in adults, BUT ALL (Acute Lymphcytic Leukemia) is more common in children

35

What is Lymphpma? What is the most common type of lymphoma? What is the most common extranodal site?

Cancer derived from lymph nodes or lymphoid tissue
- Hodgkin's Lymphoma is most common
- Stomach is common site of extranodal primary malignant lymphoma

36

What is a teratoma?

Tumor composed of more than one parenchymal cell type that is derived from more than one germ layer

37

What is the difference between a mature and an immature teratoma?

Mature= benign

Immature= malignant

38

What does anaplasia mean? Does this mean that a tumor is benign of malignant?

Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tissue, which is indicative highly malignant tumors

39

You observe a lesion in the lung field of a CT scan called a "coin lesion." What is this?

This is a pulmonary hamartoma i.e. normal tissue that is disorganized

*****This is NOT a tumor

40

What is the Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome?

Hereditary intestinal polypopsis syndrome
- Autosomal dominant inheritance
- Causes benign hamartomtous polys in the GI tract & hyperpigmentation of the lips

41

What is monoconality? What is the clinical implication about monoclonality?

This term refers to tumors originating from a single precursor cell

*****Neoplasms are monoclonal; non-neoplastic proliferations are polyclonal

42

Generally, how do you tell the difference between a benign and a malignant tumor?

- Appearance of the tumor
- Behavior of the tumor

43

What are the four criteria used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors?

1) Rate of growth
2) Differentiation & anaplasia
3) Local invasion
4) Metastasis