Flashcards in Exam #2: Neoplasia Deck (43):
What is the definition of neoplasia? What are the two causes of neoplasia?
This is the process of uncontrolled growth caused by:
- Uncontrolled proliferation
- Evasion of apoptosis
What is a neoplasm?
Abnormal tissue mass
What are the common features of neoplasms? What is the general progression of neoplasia?
1) Neoplasms are NOT physiology; they are pathological & purposeless
2) Loss of control over cell division
3) DNA damage at growth control genes i.e. checkpoints
What is the difference between benign and a malignant tumor?
Benign= neoplasm that grows WITHOUT INVADING adjacent tissue & spreading to distant sites
- Well circumscribed capsule
Malignant= neoplasm INVADES surrounding normal tissue & spreads to distant sites
- Poorly defined capsule
*****If you see the word INVASION, the tumor is NOT benign; if you see metastasis, MALIGNANT
What is an intermediate neoplasm?
This is a neoplasm that is between benign and malignant b/c
- Locally invasive i.e. NOT benign
- No metastasis
What is carcinoma in situ?
- Pre-invasive cell proliferation
- Has cytological features of malignancy
What are the two components of a tumor?
What is the parenchyma? What does the parenchyma determine?
Clonal neoplastic cells that:
- Determines the biological behavior of the tumor
- Gives the tumor its name
What is the stroma? What does the stroma determine?
Stoma= the support cells of a tumor
- Connective tissue
- Blood vessels
- Macrophages & lymphocytes
****These determine the growth and evolution of the tumor
What determines the growth and evolution of a tumor, its parenchyma or stroma?
What is the difference between a neoplasm that contains a high degree of stroma vs. a low degree of stroma?
Scant stroma= soft & fleshy
Abundant stroma= hard
What is the name of a benign epithelial neoplasm?
What is the difference between an adenoma and a papilloma?
Papilloma= not from gland
What is the name of a malignant epithelial tumor?
What is an adenocarcinoma?
Malignant glandular carcinoma
What is the suffix given to benign mesenchymal neoplasms?
What is the suffix given to malignant mesenchymal neoplasms?
What is a Fibroma?
Benign fibroblast neoplasm
What is a Chondroma?
Benign cartilagenous neoplasm
What is an Osteoma?
Benign osteoblast neoplasm
What is a Lipoma?
Benign adipose tumor
What is aLeiomyoma?
Benign smooth muscle neoplasm
What is a Cystadenomas?
Bengin glandular neoplasm with a cyst
What is a polyp? Is a polyp benign or malignant?
Club-shaped growth that projects from the lumen into a hallow viscus
****Does not distinguish between benign and malignant
What is a Papilloma?
Benign tumor of the skin i.e. a wart
What are the exceptions to the "oma" suffix i.e. what are the malignant tumors that end in the suffix oma?
*Germ-cell tumor of the testicle
What are the non-neoplastic lesions that end with the suffix oma?
What is a Choristoma?
Normal tissue in an abnormal location
E.g. adrenal cells in ovary, lungs, or kidney
What is a hamartoma?
Normal tissue in normal place that is disorganized
E.g. pulmonary hamartoma & Peutz-Jeghers polyp
What are the common features of carcinomas and sarcomas?
- Capsule generally absent
- Rapid growth
- Invasion present
- Atypical mitosis present
What are the differences between sarcoma and carcinoma? Specifically address, origin, incidence, metastasis, & prognosis.
1) Carcinoma= epithelial & Sarcoma= mesenchymal
2) Carcinoma has higher incidence
3) Metastasis is lymphatic in carcinoma and hematogenous in sarcoma
4) Better prognosis because of later distant metastasis in carcinoma
What is a transitional cell carcinoma?
Malignant neoplasm that takes its origin from transitional epithelium of the urinary system
What are the specific names given to blood cancer?
What is Leukemia? What Leukemias are most common in children in adults?
Cancer derived from hematopoietic cells i.e. bone marrow stem cells
- CLL (chronic lymphocytic leukemia) is most common in adults, BUT ALL (Acute Lymphcytic Leukemia) is more common in children
What is Lymphpma? What is the most common type of lymphoma? What is the most common extranodal site?
Cancer derived from lymph nodes or lymphoid tissue
- Hodgkin's Lymphoma is most common
- Stomach is common site of extranodal primary malignant lymphoma
What is a teratoma?
Tumor composed of more than one parenchymal cell type that is derived from more than one germ layer
What is the difference between a mature and an immature teratoma?
What does anaplasia mean? Does this mean that a tumor is benign of malignant?
Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated tissue, which is indicative highly malignant tumors
You observe a lesion in the lung field of a CT scan called a "coin lesion." What is this?
This is a pulmonary hamartoma i.e. normal tissue that is disorganized
*****This is NOT a tumor
What is the Peutz-Jegher's Syndrome?
Hereditary intestinal polypopsis syndrome
- Autosomal dominant inheritance
- Causes benign hamartomtous polys in the GI tract & hyperpigmentation of the lips
What is monoconality? What is the clinical implication about monoclonality?
This term refers to tumors originating from a single precursor cell
*****Neoplasms are monoclonal; non-neoplastic proliferations are polyclonal
Generally, how do you tell the difference between a benign and a malignant tumor?
- Appearance of the tumor
- Behavior of the tumor