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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (73):
1

Erikson Stage 5

Identity vs. Role confusion during adolescence (Who am I and where am I going? Do I have a unified sense of self?) Make decisions about occupation, beliefs, etc

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Erikson stage 6

Intimacy vs. isolation early adult years (Shall I share my life with another or live alone forever)

3

Erikson stage 7

Generactivity vs. stagnation- middle adulthood (will I produce something of real value? Have I contributed to the world in some meaningful way?)

4

Erikson Stage 8

Integrity vs. despair- late adulthood (Have I lived a full life? Accept successes and failures)

5

Jean Piaget

Who said, "Children are not like adults but instead think much differently about the world"

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Piagets 4 stages

Sensorimotor stage, Preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage

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Sensorimotor stage

Piaget 4 stages: from birth until 2 years

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Preoperational stage

Piaget 4 stages: from 2 years to 7 years

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concrete operational stage

Piaget 4 stages: from 7 years until 12 years

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Formal operational stage

Piaget 4 stages: from 12 years to adulthood

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Sensorimotor stage

One of piagets stages: sense and motor abilities; object permanence

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Object permanence

put a blanket over a marker and babies thin it has actually disappeared from existence

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Preoperational stage

One of piagets stages: Egocentricism and conservation issues

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Egocentricism

can't view world though someone else's perspective; e.g. cover eyes and think you can't see them, assume that what they see everyone does

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Conservation issues

Flipping a beaker upside down, centration and irreversibility

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centration

ability to focus on only one feature of an aspect

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Concrete operational stage

One of piaget's stages: becomes capable of concrete logical thought processes but is not yet capable of abstract thinking; conservation is possible

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Formal operational stage

One of piaget's stages: abstract thinking

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Piaget's theory

Stressed the importance of the child's interaction with objects, while underestimated the role of others in child's acquisition of knowledge and skills

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Intrinsic motivation

Person performs action because it's fun, challenging or in some way satisfying in an internal matter

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Extrinsic motivation

Person performs action because it leads to outcome that is separate from or external to the person

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Drive

A psychological tension and physical arousal that arises when there is a need

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Drive

motivates organism to act to fulfill the need and reduce the tension

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Need

requirement of some material e.g. water, food that is essential for survival of the organism

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Primary drive

Involve needs of the body such as hunger or thirst

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Acquired drives

learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approval

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Need for achievement

Involved strong desire to succeed in attaining goals- not only realistic ones, but also challenging ones

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Locas of control

In a need for achievement, where you believe the responsibility of your situation lies

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Internal locus of control

When you believe you are responsible for your outcome

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External locus of control

The outside world is primarily responsible for what happens to you

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Need for affiliation

the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with others

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Need for power

the need to have control or influence over others

33

Cognitive Mediational Theory

A stimulus must be interpreted by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction

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Facial Feedback Hypothesis

Facial expressions provide feedback to the brains concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion

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Facial Feedback Hypothesis

See shark> arousal and involuntary facial expression>interpretation> feel fear

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Cognitive Mediational Theory

See shark> appraisal of threat> fear> bodily response

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Amygdala

Very important in perception and regulation of emotion; key to our response of fear

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Fast, crude "low road" and slower but more involved cortical "high road"

Emotional stimuli travel to the amygdala by both:

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compliance

changing one's behavior as a result of other people directing or asking for the change

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Foot in the door technique

Asking for a small commitment and after gaining compliance, you ask for a bigger commitment

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door in the face technique

ask for a very large commitment and once refused, you ask for a smaller commitment

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lowball technique

get a commitment from a person, and then raise the cost of that commitment

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obedience

Changing one's behavior at the command of an authority figure

44

Nature

Refers to heredity, the influence of inherited characteristics on personality, physical growth, intellectual growth, and social interactions

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Nurture

Refers to the influence of the environment on all of those same things and includes parenting styles, physical surroundings, economic factors and anything that can have influence on development that does not come from within a person

46

Behavioral Genetics

A field in investigation of the origins of behavior in which researchers try to determine how much behavior is the result of genetic inheritance and how much is due to a person's experiences

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Monozygotic twins

the two babies come from one fertilized egg; will be the same sex, and have identical features

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Dizygotic twins

Which type of twin is a result from an older woman who are from certain ethnic groups

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Dizygotic twins

fraternal twins, when a woman's body releases more than one egg at a time or release an egg in a later ovulation period

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Conjoined twins

in a twinning process, when the mass of cells does not completely split apart it results in them beings joined at the point where the two cell masses remained stuck.

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Genetics

The science of heredity

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Dominant

genes that are more active in influencing the trait

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recessive

genes that are less active in influencing the trait and will only be expressed in the observable trait if they are paired with another less active gene

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Schachter-singer cognitive arousal theory

tow things have to happen before emotion occurs: the physical arousal and a labeling of the arousal based on cues from the surrounding environment "I am aroused in the presence of a scary dog, therefore, I must be afraid

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James-Lange theory

physical arousal leads to the labeling of emotion, I am embarrassed because my face is red

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Cannon-Bard theory

The fear and the bodily reactions are experienced at the same time I'm afraid and running and aroused!

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Lazarus

who came up with cognitive meditational theory of emotion; the interpretation of the arousal that results in the emotion of fear

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common sense theory

I'm shaking because I'm afraid

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Prejudice

Negative attitude held by a person about the members of a particular social group

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discrimination

treating people differently because of prejudice toward the social group to which they belong

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conformity

changing one's own behavior to more closely match the actions of others

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Social loafing

people who are lazy tend not to do as well when other people are also working on the same task, but they can do quite well when working on their own

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social cognitive theory

prejudice is seen as an attitude that is formed as other attitudes are formed, throughout direct instruction, modeling and other social influences on learning

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Education

what is the best weapon against prejudice

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Overcome prejudice

Why is there intergroup contact: where student and faculty from many different backgrounds live, work, and study together

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Equal status contact

has been shown to reduce prejudice and discrimination which forces people to be in the same situation with neither group holding power over the other

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jigsaw classroom

each student is given a piece of the puzzle for solving a problem and reaching a goal. then they share it with other members of the group

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Attitude

a tendency to respond positively or negatively toward a certain idea, person, object or situation

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True

T/F attitude are often poor predicts of behavior unless the attitude is very specific or very strong

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How we form attitudes

direct contact, direct instruction from parents, interacting with other people, vicarious conditioning, and persuasion

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persuasion

the process by which one person tries to change the belief opinion, position, or course of action of another person throughout argument, pleading, or explanation

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Cognitive dissonance

sense of discomfort or distress that occurs when a person's behavior does not correspond to that person's attitudes

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stereotypes

a belief that a set of characteristics is shared by all members of a particular social category