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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (45):
1

Attrition/ mortality

The loss of subjects who decide to leave an experiment

2

Carryover effect

A problem that may occur in repeated measures designs if the effects of one treatment are still present when the next treatment is given

3

Confounding variable

A variable that is not controlled in a research investigation. In an experiment, the experimental groups differ on both the IV and the confounding variable

4

Counterbalancing

A method of controlling for order effects in a repeated measures designed by either including all orders of treatment presentation or randomly determining the order for each subject

5

Fatigue effect

Deterioration in participant Performance with repeated testing

6

Internal Validity

The certainty with which results of an experiment can be attributed to the manipulation of the independent variable rather than to some other confounding variable

7

Latin square

A technique to control for order effects without having all possible orders

8

Order effect

In a repeated measures design the effect that the order of introducing treatment have on the dependent variable

9

Practice Effect

Improvement in participant performance with repeated testing

10

Selection differences

Differences in the types of subjects who make up each group in an experimental design; this situation occurs when participants select which group they are to be assigned to

11

Solomon four group design

Experimental design in which the experimental and control groups are studied with and without a pretest

12

Confederate

A person posing as a participants in an experiment who is actually part of the experiment

13

Demand characteristics

Cues that inform the subject how he or she is expected to behave

14

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

A measure of the electrical activity of the brain

15

Electromyogram (EMG)

A measure of the electrical activity of muscles including muscle tension

16

Expectancy effect(experimenter bias)

Any intentional or unintentional influence that the experimenter exerts on subjects to confirm the hypothesis under investigation

17

Filler items

Items included in a questionnaire measured to help disguise the true purpose of the measure

18

Functional MRI

Magnetic resonance Imaging uses a magnet to obtain scans of structures of the brain. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides information on the amount of activity in different brain structures

19

Galvanic skin response

The electrical conductance of the skin which changes when sweating occurs

20

Factorial design

Design in which all levels of each independent variable are combined with all levels of the other independent variables. A factorial design allows investigation of the separate main effects and interactions of two or more independent variables

21

IV x PV design

A factorial design that includes both an experimental independent variable and a non-experimental participant variable

22

Main effect

The direct effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable

23

Mixed factorial design

A design that includes both independent groups and repeated measures

24

Simple effects

In a factorial design, the effect of one independent variable at a particular level of another independent variable

25

Baseline

In a single case design, the subjects behavior during a control period before introduction of the experimental manipulation

26

Cohort

A group of people born at about the same time and exposed to the same societal events; cohort effects are confounded with age in a cross-sectional study

27

Cross-sectional method

A developmental research method in which persons of different ages are studied at only one point in time; conceptually similar to an independent groups design

28

History effects

As a threat to the internal validity of an experiment, refers to any outside event that is not part of the manipulation that could be responsible for the results

29

Instrument decay

As a threat to internal validity, the possibility that a change in the characteristics of a measurement instruments, including human observers, is responsible for the results

30

Interrupted time series design

A design in which the effectiveness of a treatment is determined by examining a series of measurements made over an extended time. Both before and after the treatment is introduced. The treatment is not Introduced at a random point in time

31

Longitudinal method

Developmental research method in which the same persons are observed repeatedly as they grow older; conceptually some words are repeated measures design

32

Maturation affects

As a threat to internal validity, the possibility that any naturally occurring change within the individual is responsible for the results

33

Multiple baseline design

Observing behavior before and after a manipulation under multiple circumstances (across different individuals, different behaviors, or different settings)

34

Non equivalent control group design

A quasi Experimental design in which nonequivalent groups of subjects participate in the different experimental groups and there is no pretest

35

None equivalence control group pretest post test design

A quasi Experimental design in which nonequivalence groups are used but a pretest allows assessment of equivalency and pretest post test changes

36

One group posttest only design

A quasi Experimental design that has no control group and no pre-test comparison; a very poor design in terms of internal validity

37

One group pretest post test design

A quasi experimental Design in which the effect of an independent variable is inferred from the pretest post test difference in a single group

38

Propensity score matching

A method of pairing individuals for assignment to treatment and control condition based upon a combination of scores on participants variables

39

Quasi experimental design

A type of design that approximates the control features of true experiments to infer that a given treatment did have it intended effect

40

Regression toward the mean

Also called statistical regression; principle that extreme scores on a variable tend to be closer to the mean when a second measurement is made

41

Reversal design

Are you single case design in which the dream is introduced after a baseline Period and then withdrawn during a second baseline period. It may Be extended by adding a second introduction of the treatment. Sometimes called a withdrawal design

42

Selection differences

Differences in the types of subjects for make up each group in an experiment for design; this situation occurs when participants elect which group they are to be assigned to

43

Sequential method

A combination of the cross-sectional and longitudinal design to study developmental research questions

44

Single case experimental design

An experiment in which the effects of the independent variable is assessed using data from a single participant

45

Testing effects

A threat to internal validity in the witch taking a pretest changes behavior without any effect on the independent variable