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Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (70):
1

family

the primary unit of socialization

2

endogamy

marriage within a group

3

exogamy

marriage outside a group

4

hypergamy

"marrying up"

5

hypogamy

"marrying down"

6

monogamy

can legally marry only one person

7

monogamous coutries

US and Europe

8

polygamy

can legally marry many people

9

polygyny

1 man with many wives

10

polyandry

1 woman with multiple husbands

11

poverty

a condition of deprivation due to economic circumstances

12

Moynihan Report

having matrifocal family pathology holds back black families, this is causes economic realities

13

perverse incentives

welfare creates the wrong incetnives

14

The Welfare Experiment

the type of media coverage of welfare recipients affects peoples view of the welfare program

15

underclass

the poor are thought of as dangerous and deviant

16

Culture of Poverty Thesis

people in poverty take on particular cultural traits to survive their environments, this holds them back in the long run

17

parental stress hypothesis

poverty increases parental stress (more punitive punishment), decreases stimulating play, and decreases warm interactions

18

credentialism

not about content of the degree, just that you earned one

19

compulsory education socializes

how to be a productive member of society

20

theology

a belief based study of religion

21

insider perspective on religion

speaking about religious traditions within their own

22

outsider perspective on religion

speaking about religion without a belief based perspective

23

hermeneutics of suspicion

an interpretation is suspicious of whatever is being studied

24

traditional authority

leader carries the weight of tradition

25

types of traditional authority

generational and authority

26

charismatic authority

charisma is in the eye of the beholder, authority based on specific people

27

charismatic authority has revolutionary potential because

people follow so strongly

28

rational-legal authority

authority is tied to legal legitimacy and bureaucracy

29

what is the US current authority structure

rational-legal

30

rationality

calculability, streamlined efficiency, predictability

31

Feudalism

contains lords vassals and surfs, precapalitst

32

changes that caused the shift from feudalism to wage labor system

-enclosure of land
-tech advancement
-migration
-urbanization
-colonization

33

capitalism

goods and means of production are privately owned

34

free market capitalism

the prices of goods are caused by market pressures and there is limited government involvement

35

state capitalism

the state can participate in commercial activity

36

reform socialist

change system to make it better

37

revolutionary socialist

blow up current system and start over

38

communism

a political ideology of a classless society in which rewards are tied to need

39

educational sorting

identifying early on what kind of job a student will likely have, and then training acordingly

40

emotion work

the biological and cognitive work that accompanies the surface active required in the service industry

41

transnational corporations

corporations with overseas branches

42

ideological transnationalism

transmission of the ideology of consumerism overseas

43

income

the amount of monetary inflow

44

wealth

the total amount of money and assets an person owns

45

issues with IQ tests

parental income, parental education, cultural capital, and valuing middle class knowledge impacts scores

46

absolute poverty

someone does not have enough income to meet the minimum requirenments for living

47

alientation

capitalism isolates people within a society

48

bureacracy

a legal-rational organization that governs with written rules and roles and emphasizes mertitocracy

49

collective action

action that takes place in groups and diverges from the social norms of the situation

50

poverty line

the estimated minimum level of income required to secure the necessities of life

51

poverty rate

the ratio of the number of people below the poverty line and the total population

52

food insecurity

the state of not having reliable access to affordable, nutritious food

53

cultural globalization

the transmission of ideas, meanings, and values around the globe

54

political globalization

increasing reliance on international organizations and united nations

55

economic globalization

increasing interdependence of world economies

56

factions of the transnational capitalist class

1. corporate
2. state
3. technical
4. consumerist

57

technical fraction

professionals

58

corporate fraction

executives, local affiliates

59

consumerist fraction

merchents, media executives

60

material deprivation

the inability of people in a society to afford the goods that are typical in a society

61

it is difficult to measure religion because

some people believe in multiple at the same time and believing does not = practicing

62

conflict approach to education

more education = more elite

63

types of cultural capital gained through education

embodied, objectified, institutionalized

64

relative poverty

when people lack the minimum amount of income to maintain the average standard of living in their society

65

civil rights

guaranteeing a citizens personal freedom from intereference

66

citizenship rights

the rights guaranteed to every citizen of a nation-state

67

social rights

the rights guaranteeing a citizen's protection by the state

68

political rights

the rights guaranteeing a citizens ability to participate in politics

69

resource-mobilization theory

model of social movements in which political context and goals are important, but social movements will only occur if there are the necessary resources

70

minimum wage deffinition

the lowest wage permitted by law