Flashcards in Exam 3 Deck (28):
During protein synthesis, how many phosphoanhydride bonds are hydrolyzed (broken) for each amino acid in a protein?
Which molecule is involved with the oxidation of glucose, synthesis of fatty acids and oxidation of fatty acids?
What represents the net products of glycolysis from one molecule of glucose?
2 pyruvate, 2 NADH, 2 ATP
What is the name for the process that produces ATP from ADP in glycolysis?
Under anaerobic conditions in skeletal muscle, pyruvate is converted into
What is an inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase?
What transport system moves activated fatty acids (acyl-CoA) from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix?
Each round of B-oxidation of a saturated fatty acyl-CoA produces
1 NADH, 1 QH2, 1 acetyl-CoA
The activation of acetyl-CoA for fatty acid synthesis is achieved by converting the acetyl-CoA into
What molecule is able to move across the mitochondrial membrane and is thus used to "transfer" acetyl-CoA from the mitochondria to the cytosol?
Under anaerobic conditions, _______ is produced in the muscle and is then used by the liver for _____.
How does insulin cause an increase in the rate of glucose transport into cells?
recruits glucose transporters from intracellular vesicles to the cell membrane
What hormone is most likely responsible for the body weight set-point?
What aspect of brown adipose tissue is responsible for its ability to generate heat?
the uncoupling protein thermogenin allows fatty acid oxidation without ATP production
When a reaction is at equilibrium, the DeltaG is equal to
The steps in glycolysis that are different than those in gluconeogenesis are catalyzed by these enzymes
pyruvate kinase, phosphofructokinase, hexokinase
To mobilize glucose from glycogen for energy, the activity of two enzymes, _____ and _____ are carefully regulated by kinases and phosphatases to ensure sufficient energy is available for use.
glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase
Inhibited by NADH and Succinyl-CoA
Alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex
Inhibited by Succinyl-CoA and ATP
Stimulated by AMP and CoA
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Stimulated by ADP; inhibited by ATP
Stimulated by Citrate
Lactate released from muscle converted back to glucose in liver. What is the cost of ATP of this cycle?
4 ATP since 2 ATP are generated in glycolysis.
Gluconeogenesis is 6 ATP.
What is one of the major hormones that regulates gluconeogenesis?
Insulin. It decreases transcription of genes coding for certain gluconeogenic enzymes.
For which genes would you expect insulin to suppress transcription?
Which compound could be involved in a reaction coupled to the synthesis of ATP from ADP + Pi?
Reactions involving phoshphoenolypyruvate, 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate, and phosphocreatine
ADP stimulates the activity of phosphofructokinase, yet it is a _____ of the reaction not a ______
not a reactant