Exam 3: Adrenal Hormones Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: Adrenal Hormones Deck (32):
1

What does the medulla secrete?

Epinephrine & norepinephrine

2

The medulla is functional related to the _____ nervous system.

Sympathetic

3

The cortex secretes _____. The 3 types are...?

Corticosteroids.
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, & androgenic hormones

4

What are the 3 cortical layers from inner to outer of the adrenal gland and what does each secrete?

Zona reticularis: Androgens
Zona fasciculata: Cortisol
Zona glomerulosa: Aldosterone

5

Cholesterol is converted to _____ in the mitochondria by the enzyme _____ _____, which is the rate-limiting step.

Pregnenolone.
Cholesterol desmolase

6

What molecules increase the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone?

ACTH & angiotensin II

7

What is the major mineralocorticoid?

Aldosterone

8

Secretion rate of aldosterone is controlled by _____ & _____.

Angiotensin II & K+

9

What is the major glucocorticoid?

Cortisol

10

Secretion of cortisol is controlled by _____.

ACTH

11

T/F: Glucocorticoids decrease blood glucose concentration.

False, increase blood glucose concentration

12

What is the major androgenic hormones?

DHEA & estrogen

13

Without _____, K+ levels in ECF rise and Na+/Cl- levels are lost from the urine. This condition is known as _____.

Aldosterone.
Hyperkalemia

14

With a lack of aldosterone, a person develops _____ cardiac output and progresses to a _____ state.

Diminished.
Shock-like

15

Alkalosis, hypokalemia (reduction in K+ in blood), & little Na+ plasma concentration change are effects of...?

Excess aldosterone

16

T/F: Aldosterone increases renal tubular reabsorption of Ca+ & increases Cl- in the urine.

False, Na+, K+

17

T/F: Aldosterone-receptor complex enters nucleus and induces RNA transcription.

True

18

Aldosterone induction results in Na+/K+ ATPase pumps on the _____ side of the cell.

Basal

19

Aldosterone induction results in Epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) on the _____ side of the cell.

Apical

20

What converts angoitensin I to angiotensin II?

ACE

21

T/F: Regulation of aldosterone secretion is dependent on regulation of cortisol secretion.

False, independent

22

Increased K+ _____ aldosterone secretion.

Increases

23

_____ angiotensin II increases aldosterone secretion.

Increased

24

T/F: ACTH has little effect in controlling rate of secretion, but is necessary for aldosterone secretion.

True

25

A decrease in glucose utilization by cells which may lead to "adrenal diabetes" is caused by?

Glucocorticoids (cortisol)

26

What disease is due to injury to the adrenal cortex?

Primary Addison's disease of hypoadrenalism

27

What disease is due to impaired function of the pituitary gland?

Secondary Addison's disease of hypoadrenalism

28

High susceptibility to stress, muscle weakness, abnormal blood glucose between meals, & reduced protein and fats is caused by?

Glucocorticoid deficiency

29

Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, acidosis, decreased cardiac output & blood pressure, & death from shock are caused by?

Mineralocorticoid deficiency

30

Increased amounts of MSH due to negative feedback malfunction in the pituitary & uneven distribution of pigmentation in thin skin areas is caused by?

Melanin pigmentation disturbances

31

Excess _____ secretion is a cause of Cushing's disease

ACTH

32

Moon face, buffalo torso, acne, hypertension, increased blood glucose, & hirsutism are characteristics of what?

Cushing's disease