Flashcards in Exam 3: Adrenal Hormones Deck (32):
What does the medulla secrete?
Epinephrine & norepinephrine
The medulla is functional related to the _____ nervous system.
The cortex secretes _____. The 3 types are...?
mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, & androgenic hormones
What are the 3 cortical layers from inner to outer of the adrenal gland and what does each secrete?
Zona reticularis: Androgens
Zona fasciculata: Cortisol
Zona glomerulosa: Aldosterone
Cholesterol is converted to _____ in the mitochondria by the enzyme _____ _____, which is the rate-limiting step.
What molecules increase the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone?
ACTH & angiotensin II
What is the major mineralocorticoid?
Secretion rate of aldosterone is controlled by _____ & _____.
Angiotensin II & K+
What is the major glucocorticoid?
Secretion of cortisol is controlled by _____.
T/F: Glucocorticoids decrease blood glucose concentration.
False, increase blood glucose concentration
What is the major androgenic hormones?
DHEA & estrogen
Without _____, K+ levels in ECF rise and Na+/Cl- levels are lost from the urine. This condition is known as _____.
With a lack of aldosterone, a person develops _____ cardiac output and progresses to a _____ state.
Alkalosis, hypokalemia (reduction in K+ in blood), & little Na+ plasma concentration change are effects of...?
T/F: Aldosterone increases renal tubular reabsorption of Ca+ & increases Cl- in the urine.
False, Na+, K+
T/F: Aldosterone-receptor complex enters nucleus and induces RNA transcription.
Aldosterone induction results in Na+/K+ ATPase pumps on the _____ side of the cell.
Aldosterone induction results in Epithelial Na+ channels (ENaC) on the _____ side of the cell.
What converts angoitensin I to angiotensin II?
T/F: Regulation of aldosterone secretion is dependent on regulation of cortisol secretion.
Increased K+ _____ aldosterone secretion.
_____ angiotensin II increases aldosterone secretion.
T/F: ACTH has little effect in controlling rate of secretion, but is necessary for aldosterone secretion.
A decrease in glucose utilization by cells which may lead to "adrenal diabetes" is caused by?
What disease is due to injury to the adrenal cortex?
Primary Addison's disease of hypoadrenalism
What disease is due to impaired function of the pituitary gland?
Secondary Addison's disease of hypoadrenalism
High susceptibility to stress, muscle weakness, abnormal blood glucose between meals, & reduced protein and fats is caused by?
Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, acidosis, decreased cardiac output & blood pressure, & death from shock are caused by?
Increased amounts of MSH due to negative feedback malfunction in the pituitary & uneven distribution of pigmentation in thin skin areas is caused by?
Melanin pigmentation disturbances
Excess _____ secretion is a cause of Cushing's disease