Exam 3 (CH. 11, 12, 14, 15, 16) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 (CH. 11, 12, 14, 15, 16) Deck (164):
1

indicates the degree to which people believe they control their fate through their own efforts

locus of control

2

person believes he or she controls his or her own destiny

internal locus of control

3

person believes external forces control him or her

external locus of control

4

a person's belief in his or her personal ability to do a task

self-efficacy

5

a debilitating lack of faith in one's ability to control one's environment

learned helplessness

6

the extent to which people like or dislike themselves - overall self-evaluation

self-esteem

7

the ability to feel secure and confident when working under pressure

emotional stability

8

the ability to cope, empathize with others, and be self-motivated

emotional intelligence

9

traits associated with emotional intelligence

self-awareness
self-management
social awareness
relationship management

10

an interdisciplinary field dedicated to the better understanding and management of people at work; deals with both individual and group behavior

organizational behavior

11

abstract ideals that guides one's thinking and behavior across all situations

values

12

a learned predisposition toward a specific person or object

attitude

13

______ are solidified, but _______ can change over time

values; attitudes

14

the feelings or emotions one has about a situation

affective component of an attitude

15

the beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation

cognitive component of an attitude

16

how one intends or expects to behave in a situation

behavioral component of an attitude

17

the psychological discomfort a person experiences as a result of behavior incompatible with his or her cognitive attitude

cognitive dissonace

18

people's actions and judgments, which are influenced by values and attitudes

behavior

19

the process of interpreting and understanding one's environment

perception

20

the tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which the individual belongs

stereotyping

21

3 types of stereotypes

1. sex-role stereotypes: beliefs that men and women are better suited for different roles

2. age stereotypes: beliefs that older workers are less involved, committed, motivated, and satisfied with their work

3. race/ethnicity stereotypes: beliefs that individuals of certain races or ethnicities are less suited to perform a job

22

refers to a situation in which one forms an impression of an individual based on a single trait

halo effect

23

refers to a tendency to remember recent information more readily than earlier information

recency effect

24

the activity of inferring causes for observed behaviors

causal attribution

25

occurs when people attribute another person's behavior to his or her personal characteristics rather than to situational factors

fundamental attribution bias

26

occurs when people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure

self-serving bias

27

describes the phenomenon in which people's expectations of themselves or others often lead them to behave in ways that make those expectations come true

self-fulfilling prophecy

28

an individual's satisfaction, involvement, and enthusiasm for work

employee engagement

29

the extent to which you feel positive or negative about various aspects of your work

job satisfaction

30

reflects the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals

organizational commitment

31

a situation in which an employee does not show up for work

absenteeism

32

occurs when employees leave their jobs

turnover

33

those employee behaviors that are not directly part of the employees' job descriptions; behaviors that exceed work-role requirements

organizational citizenship behaviors

34

types of behaviors that harm not only employees but also the organization as a whole

ex: absenteeism, tardiness, disciplinary problems, drug and alcohol abuse

counterproductive work behaviors (CWB)

35

the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another

communication

36

translating a message into understandable symbols or language

encoding

37

interpreting and trying to make sense of the message

decoding

38

indicates how well a particular medium conveys information and promotes learning

media richness

39

highest media richness (rich media)

face-to-face conversations

40

lowest media richness (lean media)

impersonal written media (newsletters, general reports)

41

____ media are best in non-routine situations

rich media

42

____ media are best in routine situations

lean media

43

this type of communication channel follows the chain of command and is recognized as official

ex: memos, reports, announcements, letters

formal

44

this type of communication flows up and down the hierarchy

vertical

45

this type of communication flows from a higher level to a lower level

downward

i.e. used in meetings, emails, memos

46

this type of communication flows from a lower level to a higher level

upward

47

this type of communication flows within and between work units; its main purpose is coordination

horizontal

i.e. supported through task forces, committees, and matrix structures

48

this type of communication flows between people inside and outside the organization

external

49

this type of communication channel develops outside the formal structure and does not follow the chain of command

informal

50

the unofficial communication system of the informal organization; workplace rumors and gossip

75% is accurate, and most employees get info from here

grapevine

51

term used to describe a manager literally wandering around his or her organization, talking with people across all lines of authority

management by wandering around (MBWA)

52

refers to the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-orienting behavior

motivation

53

in a __________, unfulfilled needs create a motivation to perform certain behaviors, which lead to rewards that fulfill those needs

simple model of motivation

54

the payoff, such as money, a person receives from others for performing a particular task

extrinsic reward

55

the satisfaction a person receives from performing the particular task itself

intrinsic reward

56

theories that emphasize the needs that motivate people

content perspectives

57

physiological or psychological deficiencies that drive behavior

needs

58

Abraham Maslow's ___________ proposes that people are motivated by five levels of needs: physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem and self-actualization

hierarchy of needs theory

59

David McClelland's ___________ states that three needs -- achievement, affiliation, and power -- are major motives that determine people's behavior in the workplace

acquired needs theory

60

the desire to influence or control others

need for power

61

the desire to excel, solve problems, achieve excellence in difficult tasks, and do something more effectively or efficiently

need for achievement

62

the desire for warm, friendly relations with others

need for affiliation

63

an individual who doesn't mind working alone, is willing to take moderate risks, and feels rewarded by the accomplishment of the task is someone who has

high need for achievement

64

an individual who does best at a job that emphasizes personal relationships, like sales positions has

high need for affiliation

65

individuals who enjoy the responsibility of being in charge of people and events have

high need for power

66

Edward Deci and Richard Ryan developed the __________, which states that people are motivated by three intrinsic needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness

self-determination theory

***focuses on intrinsic motivation

67

Frederick Herzberg's ____________, proposes that work satisfaction and dissatisfaction arise from two different factors: hygiene factors and motivating factors

two-factor theory

68

the lower-level needs associated with job dissatisfaction -- such as salary, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, and company policy -- all of which affect the job context in which people work

hygiene factors

69

the higher-level needs associated with job satisfaction -- such as achievement, recognition, responsibility, and performance -- all of which affect the job content or the rewards of work performance

motivating factors

70

this theory suggests that managers should first aim to reduce dissatisfaction by implementing reasonable company policies and making sure that pay and working conditions are appropriate.

only after they do so can they work on motivating employees by offering recognition, responsibility, and opportunities for growth

Herzberg's two-factor theory

71

________ are concerned with the thought processes people use to decide how to act

process perspectives

72

developed by J. Stacey Adams, ________ focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others

equity theory

73

______ include anything the employee puts into the job, such as time, seniority, and intelligence

inputs

74

_____ include anything the employee gets out of the job such as pay, promotions, and praise

outputs

75

developed by Victor Vroom, _________ suggests that people are motivated by two things: 1. how much they want something and 2. how likely they are to get it

expectancy theory

76

the belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance

expectancy (effort to performance expectancy)

77

the expectation that successful performance of a task will lead to a desired outcome

instrumentality (performance to reward expectancy)

78

value, the importance a worker assigns to a possible outcome or reward

valence

79

the distribution of an organization's work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance

job design

80

the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs

job simplification

81

this consists of increasing the number of tasks in a job to increase variety and motivation

job enlargement (horizontal loading)

82

this consists of building into a job such motivating factors as responsibility, achievement, recognition, stimulating work, and advancement

job enrichment (vertical loading)

83

developed by J. Richard Hackman and Greg Oldham, the ________ consists of five core job characteristics that affect three critical psychological states of an employee

job characteristics model

84

five core job characteristics of the job characteristics model:

skill variety
task identity
task significance
autonomy
feedback

***characteristics affect 3 important psychological traits: meaningfulness of work, responsibility for results, and knowledge of results

85

Edward L. Thorndike's ______ states that individuals tend to repeat behaviors with pleasant outcomes and tend not to repeat behaviors with unpleasant outcomes

law of effect

86

B.F. Skinner described _____, the manipulation of behavior by controlling consequences

operant conditioning

87

this theory attempts to explain behavioral change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends to not be repeated

reinforcement theory

88

the use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior

positive reinforcement

89

the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior

negative reinforcement

90

withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for behavior so the behavior is less likely to occur in the future

extinction

91

application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior

punishment

92

the ability to influence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals

leadership

93

a combination of management and leadership, which exists when a person influences others about what needs to be done and how to do it in the workplace

managerial leadership

94

organizations use management to deal with

complexity

95

organizations use leadership to deal with

change

96

power directed at helping oneself; self-serving and generally gives power a bad name

personalized power

97

power directed at helping others; more selfless and useful

socialized power

98

5 major sources of power within an organization

1. legitimate power: results from managers' formal positions within organization
2. reward power: results from managers' authority to reward their subordinates (promotions, raises, etc.)
3. coercive power: results from managers' authority to punish their subordinates (termination, demotion, etc.)
4. expert power: results from one's specialized information or expertise
5. referent power: power derived from one's personal attraction

99

9 tactics for influencing others

1. rational persuasion: using logic, reason, facts
2. inspirational appeals: using emotions, values, ideals
3. consultation: involving others in decision or change
4. ingratiating tactics: making someone feel good or important
5. personal appeals: making request based on friendship or loyalty
6. exchange tactics: offering to trade favors or remind someone of past favors
7. coalition tactics: gathering support for your effort
8. pressure tactics: forcing compliance through demands, threats or intimidation
9. legitimating tactics: basing request on authority or organizational policies

100

the ____________ attempt to identify distinctive characteristics that account for the effectiveness of leaders

trait approaches to leadership

101

dark-side traits to leadership

1. narcissism
2. machiavellianism
3. psychopathy

102

the ___________ attempt to determine the distinctive styles used by effective leaders

behavioral leadership approaches

103

task-oriented leadership behavior attempts to use ______ to efficiently achieve the goals of the organization or group

resources (people, equipment, etc.)

104

this behavior encompasses how a leader organizes and defines how employees should do their jobs in order to be as efficient as possible

initiating-structure leadership

105

after defining an employee's role and responsibilities, a _______ leader will also establish performance-based punishments and rewards

transactional

106

__________ is focused on creating positive relationships between leaders and employees, and among coworkers

relationship-oriented leadership

107

under _______ leadership, the concerns of the employees become the concerns of the leader; mutual sense of trust and respect is developed as result

consideration

108

_________ leadership involves enhancing the sense of employees' psychological empowerment, or their sense of control over their work

empowering

109

_________ is often used to empower employees, as it involves employees in the goal-setting, decision-making, problem-solving, and change processes

participative management

110

________ leadership is actually a lack of leadership

passive

111

________ leadership is a failure of a manager to take the responsibility of leading

laissez-faire

112

_______ leadership depends on the situation at hand

contingency

113

Fred Fielder's ___________ determines if a leadership style is 1. task-oriented or 2. relationship-oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand

contingency leadership model

114

3 dimensions of situational control

1. leader-member relations: degree to which group shows support and trust toward leader
2. task structure: degree to which tasks are unambiguous, routine, and easily understood
3. position power: degree to which leader has power to reward, punish, and make work assignment

115

according to Fielder's model, a __________ style is best in high-control or low-control situations

task-oriented

116

in moderate-control situations, however, a ________ style is beset

relationship-oriented

117

Robert House's ___________ holds that the effective leader makes desirable rewards available to followers in the workplace and increases their motivation by clarifying the paths, or behavior, that will help them achieve those goals and by providing support

path-goal leadership model

118

according to House, there are 8 leadership styles:

1. path-goal clarifying
2. achievement-oriented
3. work facilitation
4. supportive
5. interaction facilitation
6. group-oriented decision making
7. representation and networking
8. value-based

119

employee characteristics and environmental factors influence

which leadership style is best in each situation; ex: group-oriented, achievement-oriented, path-goal

120

House emphasizes _______. That is, leader behavior is demonstrated among all of the employees in an organization, not just by supervisors or managers

shared leadership

121

Bernard Bass and Bruce Avolio's model of ___________ suggests that leadership behavior varies along a full range of leadership styles, from take-no-responsibility "leadership" at one extreme, through transactional leadership, to transformational leadership at the other extreme

full range leadership

122

_________ leadership inspires employees to pursue organization goals over self-interests

transformational

123

transformation leadership is best

in a flexible organizational culture within a changing environment; leaders are extroverted, proactive, and agreeable

124

4 key behaviors of transformational leaders that attract followers:

1. inspirational motivation
2. idealized influence
3. individualized consideration
4. intellectual stimulation

125

refers to monitoring performance, comparing performance with goals, and taking corrective action as needed

controlling

126

6 reasons why organizations need to use control

1. to deal with uncertainty and adapt to change
2. to find errors and irregularities
3. to increase productivity, add value, or reduce costs
4. to find opportunitites
5. to deal with complexity
6. to facilitate teamwork and decentralize organizational decision making

127

4 steps in the control process

1. establish standards (control standard = desired performance level for a given goal)
2. measure performance: written reports, oral reports, personal observation
3. compare performance standards
4. take corrective action, if necessary

128

a control principle that states that managers should be informed of a situation only if data show a significant deviation from standards

management by exception

129

monitoring performance to ensure that the strategic plans are being implemented, and then taking corrective action as needed

strategic control (top management)

130

monitoring performance to ensure that tactical plans -- those at the divisional or departmental level -- are being implemented and corrective action is being taken as needed

tactical control (middle managers)

131

monitoring performance to ensure that operational plans -- day to day goals-- are being implemented and corrective action is being taken, as needed

operational control (first-level managers)

132

this area of control monitors equipment, tangible products, and buildings

physical area of control

133

drug testing, performance tests, and employee surveys fall under this area of control

human resources area of control

134

sales forecasts, public relations briefings, and production schedules fall under this area of control

informational area of control

135

accounts payable, cash-on-hand, and budgets fall under this area of control

financial area of control

136

this area of control refers to the structural or hierarchical arrangement of the organization

structural area of control

137

an approach to organizational control characterized by the use of rules, regulations, and formal authority to guide performance; encourages compliance

i.e. works best in an organization with explicit, predictable tasks (like railroad company)

bureaucratic control

138

an approach to organizational control that is characterized by informal and organic structural arrangements; encourages commitment

i.e. common in flat organizations

decentralized control

139

in this area of control, the organization's values and beliefs contribute to norms, which affect employee evaluation and control processes

cultural area of control

140

an easy-to-read display with up-to-date information about important organization information, such as sales and orders; helps make evidence-based management possible

dashboard

141

the _________ was developed by Robert Kaplan and David Norton and gives top managers a fast but comprehensive view of the organization via four indicators: 1. customer satisfaction, 2. internal processes, 3. innovation and improvement activities, and 4. financial measures

balanced scorecard

142

traditional financial measures can lead to short-term shareholder success without improving quality, worker motivation, or customer satisfaction

financial perspective

143

customer service dimensions include any factor that would produce customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction, including number of defects, price levels, quality, and time to respond to service calls

customer perspective

144

the effectiveness of internal processes are reflected in measures of employee skills, productivity, and quality

internal business perspective

145

innovation and creativity are based on employee learning and growth

innovation perspective

146

a _________, also developed by Kaplan and Norton, is a visual representation of the four perspectives of the balanced scorecard that enables managers to communicate their goals so that each person in the company can understand how his or her job is linked to the overall objectives of the organization

strategy map

147

study suggested that measurement-managed firms succeed more than non-measurement-managed firms for the following reasons:

1. top-level executives agree on strategy
2. communication is clear
3. focus is stronger
4. there is a culture of teamwork and risk taking

148

barriers to effective management:

1. fuzzy objectives
2. too much trust in informal feedback
3. employee resistance
4. too much focus on measurement

149

a formal financial projection

budget

150

_________ forces each department to start from zero in projecting its funding needs for the coming budget period; no longer favored

zero-based budgeting

151

_________ allocates increased or decreased funds to a department by using the last budgeting period as a reference point; only requests for incremental changes in the budget are reviewed

***downside: prevents managers from taking a critical look at departmental budget needs

incremental budgeting

152

this type of budget predicts cash inflows and outflows over a given period

cash flow budget

153

this type of budget predicts investments on major assets (like land or large equipment)

capital expenditures budget

154

this type of budget predicts future sales (typically by product, sales area, or month)

sales or revenue budget

155

this type of budget predicts the cost of different organizational activities

expense budget

156

this type of budget predicts cash sources and organizational spending

financial budget

157

this type of budget predicts organization output, financial requirements, and anticipated income

operating budget

158

this type of budget predicts requirements in terms of non-monetary units, such as labor hours

non-monetary budget

159

a ________ (aka static budget) allocates resources on the basis of a single estimate of costs; they do not allow variation or adjustment over time, even if organizational requirements change

fixed budget

160

a _______ allows the allocation of resources to vary in proportion with various levels of activity; allow for variation and adjustment over time as organizational requirements change

variable budget

161

4 characteristics common to successful control systems:

1. strategic and results-oriented: managers should develop control standards while they are constructing strategic plans

2. timely, accurate, and objective: control systems should provide managers with feedback on the right things at the right time

3. realistic, positive, and understandable: control systems should be acceptable to workers who will have to operate under them

4. flexible: control systems must be flexible when changes in the organization or environment make change necessary

162

barriers to control success:

1. too much control
2. too little participation by employees
3. overemphasizing means instead of ends
4. overemphasizing paperwork
5. overemphasizing a single approach

163

_______ is a measure of outputs divided by inputs over a period of time

productivity

164

information systems for integrating virtually all aspects of a business

enterprise resource planning software systems