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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (49)
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1

Defined as one-half the distance between the centers of two adjacent atoms

Metallic radius

2

Defined as one-half the distance between the centers of the atoms in the molecules

Covalent radius

3

The minimum energy(kJ/mol) required to remove sn electron from a gaseous atom in its ground state

Ionization energy

4

The negative of the energy change that occurs when an electron is accepted by an atom in the gaseous state to form an anion

Electron affinity

5

X + e = X-

Electron affinity

6

Have the same number of electrons, and hence the same ground-state electron configuration
Ex. Na+, Al3+, F-, O2-, and N3-

Isoelectronic

7

The positive charge felt by an electron

Effective nuclear charge(Zeff)

8

The outer shell electrons of an atom. Participate in chemical bonding

Valence electrons

9

The electrostatic force that holds ions together in an ionic compound

Ionic bond

10

The energy required to completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions

Lattice energy

11

A chemical bond in which two or more electrons are shared by two atoms

Covalent bond

12

Two atoms share two pairs of electrons

Double bond

13

Two atoms share three pairs of electrons

Triple bond

14

A covalent bond with greater electron density around one of the two atoms

Polar covalent bond or polar bond

15

The ability of an atom to attract toward itself the electrons in a chemical bond

Electronegativity

16

The difference between the number of valence electrons in an isolated atom and the number of electrons assigned to that atom in a leeis structure

Formal charge

17

One of two or more lewis structures for a single molecule that cannot be represented accurately by only one lewis structure

Resonance structure

18

The enthalpy change required to break a particular bond in one mole of gaseous molecules

Bond enthalpy

19

The distance between identical points on successive waves

Wavelength

20

The vertical distance from the midline of a wave to the peak or trough

Amplitude

21

The number of waves that pass through a particular point in 1 second

Frequency

22

The interaction between waves

Interference

23

Waves that interact so that they add to make a larger wave are said to be in phase

Constructive interference

24

Waves that interact so that they cancel each other are said to be out of phase

Destructive interference

25

n-l-1

Equation to find nodes

26

Represents the total probability at a certain distance from the nucleus

Radial distribution function

27

Principle quantum number(energy level)

n

28

Angular momentum quantum number(orbital type)

l

29

Magnetic quantum number(position of orbital)

ml

30

Spin quantum number(orientation of the spin)

ms

31

The more accurately you know the position of a small particle, such as an electron, the less you know about its speed(momentum), and vice versa

heisenberg's uncertainty principle

32

Allows us to calculate the probability of finding an electron with a particular amount of energy at a particular location in the atom

Schrodinger's equation

33

A probability distribution map of a region where the electron is likely to be found

Orbital

34

Represents the total probability of finding an electron at a particular point in space

Probability density function

35

Same sign

Phase

36

Opposite signs

Out of phase

37

The sign of the wave function

Phase

38

Distance of electrons from the nucleus

n

39

Spherical

S orbitals

40

Like two balloons tied at the knots(dumbbell shape)

P orbital

41

Like four balloons toed at the knots

D orbital

42

Like eight balloons tied at the knots

F orbital

43

Shape of the volume of space that electron occupies

l

44

Orientation of the orbital in space

ml

45

No two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers

Pauli exclusion principle

46

Fill-up electrons in lowest energy orbitals

Aufbau principle

47

The most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells is the one with the greatest number of parallel spins

Hund's rule

48

Unpaired electrons

Paramagnetic

49

All electrons paired

Diamagnetic