Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (55):
Gases to know:
Gases to know:
The noble gases
Gases to know:
correlates the changes in pressure, volume, temperature, and moles when two of these variables are held constant
Constant: moles and temperature.
Pressure is inversely proportional to volume.
Pi x Vi = Pf x Vf
If pressure goes up, volume goes down.
Convert to Kelvin
K= Celcius +273
Constant: moles and pressure.
Volume is directly proportional to Kelvin temperature.
Vi/Ti = Vf/Tf
If temperature goes up, volume goes up.
Constant: moles and volume.
Pressure is directly proportional to Kelvin temperature.
P/T = k
Combined gas law
Combination of Boyle's law and Charles law:
(Pi x Vi)/Ti = (Pf x Vf)/Tf
Constant: temp and pressure.
Volume is directly proportional to number of moles (n).
V/n = k
Molar volume of a gas
1 mole of any gas at 1 atm and 0 degrees Celsius will occupy 22.4 Liters.
Ideal Gas Law
PV = nRT
Standard temp and pressure (STP)
Temp: 237 K
Pressure: 1 atm
aka formula weight
aka molecular weight
# of moles = mass/molar mass
Gas law constant
R = 0.082 L atm/mol K
Dalton's law of partial pressure
The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the individual gases.
things that affect vapor pressure
type of molecules
(surface area does not)
Vapor pressure and boiling point
decreased BP = increased VP
Vapor pressure and temperature
Increased temp = increased VP
Boiling point and atmospheric pressure
(Boiling point and altitude)
Increased atm = increased BP
(decreased altitude = increased BP)
the spontaneous net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
the process where individual molecules flow through a hole without collisions between molecules
Graham's law of Effusion
The movement of gases is inversely proportional to the molecular weight. (NOT the number of atoms in the molecule)
The higher the pressure of a gas over a liquid, the higher the concentration of the gas in the liquid.
How to determine D&L families?
1) find Chiral carbon furthest from the carbonyl carbon
2) -OH on right = D
-OH on left = L
Enzymes in the body are only designed what type of sugar?
10 sugars or less
aldehyde + alcohol =
Ketone + alcohol =
-OH on the anomeric carbon is pointing below the plane of the ring
-OH on the anomeric carbon is pointing above the plane of the ring
In a sugar ring, the carbon with an -OH and is next to the O.
(Carbon that use to be the carbonyl carbon)
the process by which an α-D-glucose is converted to a β-D-glucose and visa versa
Equilibrium of alpha and beta sugars:
Alpha glucose 36%
Open glucose 0.02%
Beta glucose 64%
form between 2 sugars
O-glycosidic vs N-glycosidic bonds
O-glycosidic is ether
N-glycosidic compounds attached to sugar via Nitrogen
sugars that undergo oxidation
(All sugars are reducing except sucrose)
Glucouronic (uronic) acid and gluconic (aldonic) acids will undergo cyclization to form...
sugars where an -OH group is replaced by a -H
glucose + fructose
galactose + glucose
reduced form of the carbohydrate
long chain carboxylic acids
(Have ester or amide bond)
1) Storage lipids-neutral
2) Membrane lipids-polar
have glycerol back bone
(polar- usually from amine or phosphate group)
1) Phospholipids (glycerol and sphingosine)
2) Glycolipids (only sphingosine)
The body uses only what type of sugar and what type of amino acid?