Exam 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (55):
1

Gases to know:
diatomic

H2
N2
O2
F2
Cl2
Br2

2

Gases to know:
Monoatomic

The noble gases
He
Ne
Ar
Kr (Krypton)
Xe (Xenon)
Rn (Radon)

3

Gases to know:
Others

CO2
CH4
CF4
HCCl3
N20
NO

4

CH4

methane

5

CF4

Carbon tetrafluoride

6

HCCl3

Chloroform

7

N20

Nitrous oxide
(anesthetic gas)

8

NO

Nitric oxide
(Vasodilator)

9

gas laws:

correlates the changes in pressure, volume, temperature, and moles when two of these variables are held constant

10

Boyle's law

Constant: moles and temperature.
Pressure is inversely proportional to volume.

Pi x Vi = Pf x Vf

If pressure goes up, volume goes down.

11

Convert to Kelvin

K= Celcius +273

12

Charles law

Constant: moles and pressure.
Volume is directly proportional to Kelvin temperature.

Vi/Ti = Vf/Tf

If temperature goes up, volume goes up.

13

Gay-Lussac's law

Constant: moles and volume.
Pressure is directly proportional to Kelvin temperature.

P/T = k

14

Combined gas law

Combination of Boyle's law and Charles law:

(Pi x Vi)/Ti = (Pf x Vf)/Tf

15

Avogadro's Law

Constant: temp and pressure.
Volume is directly proportional to number of moles (n).

V/n = k

16

Molar volume of a gas

1 mole of any gas at 1 atm and 0 degrees Celsius will occupy 22.4 Liters.

17

Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

18

Standard temp and pressure (STP)
and volume

Temp: 237 K
Pressure: 1 atm
Volume: 22.4L

19

Molar mass

aka formula weight
aka molecular weight

# of moles = mass/molar mass

20

Gas law constant

R = 0.082 L atm/mol K

21

Dalton's law of partial pressure

The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressure of the individual gases.

22

things that affect vapor pressure

type of molecules
temperature

(surface area does not)

23

Vapor pressure and boiling point

decreased BP = increased VP

24

Vapor pressure and temperature

Increased temp = increased VP

25

Boiling point and atmospheric pressure
(Boiling point and altitude)

Increased atm = increased BP
(decreased altitude = increased BP)

26

Diffusion

the spontaneous net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

27

Effusion

the process where individual molecules flow through a hole without collisions between molecules

28

Graham's law of Effusion

The movement of gases is inversely proportional to the molecular weight. (NOT the number of atoms in the molecule)

29

Henry's law

The higher the pressure of a gas over a liquid, the higher the concentration of the gas in the liquid.

30

How to determine D&L families?

1) find Chiral carbon furthest from the carbonyl carbon
2) -OH on right = D
-OH on left = L

31

Enzymes in the body are only designed what type of sugar?

D-sugars

32

Oligosaccharides

10 sugars or less

33

Polysaccharides

>10 sugars

34

aldehyde + alcohol =

HemiAcetal

35

Ketone + alcohol =

Hemiketal

36

Alpha sugar

-OH on the anomeric carbon is pointing below the plane of the ring

37

Beta sugar

-OH on the anomeric carbon is pointing above the plane of the ring

38

Anomeric carbon

In a sugar ring, the carbon with an -OH and is next to the O.
(Carbon that use to be the carbonyl carbon)

39

Mutarotation

the process by which an α-D-glucose is converted to a β-D-glucose and visa versa

40

Equilibrium of alpha and beta sugars:

Alpha glucose 36%
Open glucose 0.02%
Beta glucose 64%

41

glycosidic bonds

form between 2 sugars

42

O-glycosidic vs N-glycosidic bonds

O-glycosidic is ether
N-glycosidic compounds attached to sugar via Nitrogen

43

Reducing sugars

sugars that undergo oxidation
(All sugars are reducing except sucrose)

44

Glucouronic (uronic) acid and gluconic (aldonic) acids will undergo cyclization to form...

Delta-lactone

45

Deoxy sugars

sugars where an -OH group is replaced by a -H

46

Disaccharides:
sucrose

glucose + fructose

47

Disaccharides:
Lactose

galactose + glucose

48

Disaccharides:
Maltose

2 glucose

49

Sugar alcohols

reduced form of the carbohydrate

50

Fatty Acids

long chain carboxylic acids

51

Hydrolyzable lipids:

(Have ester or amide bond)
1) Storage lipids-neutral
2) Membrane lipids-polar

52

Storage lipids

(neutral)
have glycerol back bone

53

Membrane lipids:

(polar- usually from amine or phosphate group)
1) Phospholipids (glycerol and sphingosine)
2) Glycolipids (only sphingosine)

54

The body uses only what type of sugar and what type of amino acid?

D-sugars
L-Amino Acids

55

which amino acid doesn't have a chiral carbon?

Glycine