Exam 4-Inflammation, Immune System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4-Inflammation, Immune System Deck (52):
1

What is the purpose of inflammation and immunity?

To protect through neutralizing, eliminating, or destroying organisms invading the internal environment.

2

Where are Human Leukocyte antigens found?

On the. surface of most body cells
-specific too that personally
-universal product code
-capable of stimulating an immune response

3

What are other names for Human Leukocyte antigens?

Human transplantation antigens
Human histocompatibility antigens
Class I antigens

4

Functions of Human Leukocyte Antigens

1. Determine tissue type
2. Key for recognition and self-tolerance

5

Self vs Non-Self

-Self tolerance
-Determination by the immune system of whether or not certain cells belong

"Hey you are not like the other cells! You can't come in!"

6

Immune System Influences

Nervous system
Endocrine system
GI system

7

stem cells

-immature, undifferentiated cells

8

What are stem cells produced by?

bone marrow

9

Why are stem cells Pluripotent?

They can travel to any direction they choose to go (towards any RBC)

10

Leukocytes (WBCs)

protect body from effects of invasion by organisms

11

How do leukocytes provide protection?

1.Recognition of self vs non-self
2.Destruction of foreign invaders, cellular debris, & abnormal cells
3. Production of ANTIBODIES against invaders
4. Complement activation
5. Production of CYTOKINES that stimulate increased formation of leukocytes in the bone marrow

12

Cytokine function

To initiate production of more leukocytes when the first round is used up

13

Full immunity requires what 3 processes...

1.Inflammation
2. Antibody-mediated immunity (AMI)
3.Cell-mediated immunity (CMI)
*ALL 3 MUST BE IN PLACE!

14

Innate Native Response

-natural protective feature of a person
-provides immediate protection
-visible symptoms & can rid of harmful organisms


ex. inflammatory response activated through the skin, mucosa, antimicrobial chemicals on skin

15

What is a possible complication of excessive response of innate native immunity?

tissue damage

16

Infection

-occurs in response to tissue injury, invasion of organisms
ex.splinter in finger
-usually accompanied by a inflammation, but can occur without infection
-Body s trying to manage Neutrophils, Macrophages, Eosinophils, basophils

17

Does inflammation always mean infection?

NO!!!

18

Neutrophils (granulocytes)

-55%-70% of WBC
-Mature called: SEGMENTED or polymorphonuclear (PMN)
-Immature called: Bands
-Stem cell to mature neutrophil takes 12-14 days
-Lifespan once mature: 12-18 hrs
-Function is phagocytosis
-Absolute Neutrophil Count

19

Macrophages

-from myeloid stem cells
-phagocytocsis
-repair
-Antigen presenting/processing
-secretion of cytokines

20

Basophils

-cause the symptom of inflammation
-blod to collect in capillaries & arterioles
-increase capillary permeability

21

Eosinophils

-active against parasitic larvae
-limits inflammatory reactions
-increases during an allergic response

22

Phagocytosis process

1. exposure/invasion
2.Atraction
3.Adherence
4.Recogntion
5.Cellular ingestion
6.Phagosome formation
7.Degradation

23

5 Cardinal manifestations of inflammation

WARMTH
REDNESS
SWELLING
PAIN
DECREASED FUNCTION

24

STAGE I: Vascular

change in blood vessels

25

STAGE I "Phase I"

constriction small veins (closes one door) & dilate arterioles (brings more people to the party) increasing delivery of nutrients to the area

26

STAGE I "Phase II"

hyperemia & edema that can cause a capillary leak

27

STAGE II: Cellular Exudate

Neurophils, pus forms a clear to yellow substance

28

STAGE III: Tissue repair & replacement

WBCs trigger new blood vessels and growth (angiogenesis) & scar tissue formation

29

Immunity

--adaptive internal protection resulting in long-term resistance to effects of invading microorganisms

-body must learn to generate specific immune responses when injected by or exposed to specific organisms

30

ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY

Humoral immunity
-antibodies produced by B-lymphocytes(B-cells)

31

B-cells

-start from as stem cells
-released from bone marrow into blood
-migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues : spleen, parts of lymph nodes, tonsils, mucosa of intestinal tract (AMI process occurs in all)

32

ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY: Steps to produce specific antigen

1.Exposure
2.Antigen recognition
3. Sensitization
-plasma celll
-memory cell
4.Antibody production & release
-circulating antibodies can be transferred to another person
5.Antibody-antogen binding
6.Antigen-binding actions
-agglutination, lysis, complement fixation, precipitation, inactivation

33

Components of AMI

-Antibodies: Immunoglobulins or gamma globulins

-Antibody classification: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgM

-1st exposure the B-cell produces the IgM antibody type against the antigen

-Re-exposure, then produces large amounts of IgG type of antibody

34

What type of immunity is ANTIBODY-MEDIATED IMMUNITY?

Adaptive

35

Active Immunity

Body takes an active role in producing antibodies

36

Natural active immunity

antigens enters body without assistance

ex. having chicken pox & developing immunity to it

37

Artificial active immunity

protection developed by vaccination or immunization

38

Passive immunity

short term effect transferred from another person

39

Natural passive immunity

mother to baby when breast fed

40

Artificial passive immunity

-injecting antibodies from another person
-short-term

ex. injected an individual with antibodies from a person who had Eboli and is now immune from it

41

CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY (Cellular Immunity)

-involves many WBC actions & interactions
-for total immunocompetence, CMI must function optimally

42

Is CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY adaptive?

YES!!!!

43

CMI: T-lymphocytes (helper/inducer cells)

T-4 or CD4 cells, secrete lymphokines, increase bone marrow production when needed

44

CMI: T-lymphocytes (suppressor cells)

T-8 cells, prevent hypersensitivity, secrete lymphokines, inhibit growth & activation of immune system (keeps things in check)

-Cytotoxic/cytolytic T-cells (Tc) : destroys cells containing processed antigens HLA, effective against parasites, protozoa

45

Natural Killer cells (NK)

-CD16, can destroy without previous sensitization
-Destroys abnormal or unhealthy cells

46

CMI: Cytokines

small protein hormones
-act as messengers that tell specific cells how to respond
-control many inflammatory & immune responses

Monokines: when produced by marcrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils or monocytes

Lymphokines: when produced by T-cells

ex. interleukins, interferons, colony stimulating factors, tumor necrosis factor

47

CMI Protection

-helps protect body through ability to differentiate self from non-self
-prevents development of cancer and metastasis after exposure to carcinogens

48

Transplant Rejection: HYPERACUTE

-immediate
-antibody-mediated response
-antibody-antigen complexes activate complement
-blood clotting cascade is activated
-massive clotting-ischemia-destruction of organ

49

Transplant Rejection: ACUTE

-1 wk to 3 months
-Antibody mediated or cellular

50

Transplant Rejection: CHRONIC

fibrotic scar tissue with reduced function

51

Transplant Rejection: Maintenance therapy

-continuous drug therapy
-specific immunosuppressants (ex. Cyclosporine)
-Less specific immunosuppressants (ex.Azathioprine)
-Corticosteroid (ex. Prednisone)

*Many side effects of drugs

52

Transplant Rejection: Rescue therapy

-increased dosages of maintenance drugs
-antilymphocyte globulin (ALG)
-Muromonab-CD3 antibody