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Flashcards in Exam 4 Kaplan Review Deck (84):
0

Produces respiratory alkalosis due to reduction in CO2 tension. What type of breathing pattern is produced by this?

Hyperventilation

1

Breathing accomplished by abdominal muscles and diaphragm; may be used
to increase effectiveness of ventilatory process in certain conditions. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Abdominal respirations

2

Difficult, labored, or painful breathing (considered “normal” at certain times, e.g., after extreme physical exertion). What type of breathing pattern is this?

Dyspnea

3

This contains the voice box and epiglottis, which prevents food from entering the trachea;
cough reflex. This is what structure of the upper respiratory system?

Larynx

4

Periodic breathing characterized by rhythmic waxing and waning of the depth of respirations. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Cheyne-Stokes respirations

5

Abnormally rapid, deep, and prolonged breathing. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Hyperventilation

6

Abnormal breath sounds. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Adventitious lung sounds

7

Rate, depth, or tidal volume changes markedly from one interval to the next; pattern of change is periodically reproduced. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Periodic breathing

8

Breathing pattern in which a lung (or portion of a lung) deflates during inspiration (acts opposite to normal). What type of breathing pattern is this?

Paradoxical respirations

9

Inability to breathe except when trunk is in upright position. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Orthopnea

10

Marked increase in depth and rate of breathing. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Kussmaul’s respirations (air hunger)

11

Reduced ventilatory efficiency; produces respiratory acidosis due to elevation in CO2 tension. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Hypoventilation

12

Gurgling, bubbling, or popping sounds;
heard mostly on inspiration and not
cleared by coughing.
May be high-pitched (fine crackles),
medium-pitched (medium crackles), or
low-pitched (coarse crackles).
May clear with coughing. What adventitious lung sound matches this description?

Crackles (Rales)

13

High-pitched, musical sounds similar to
a squeak.
Heard more commonly on expiration, but
may be heard on inspiration.
Auscultated over small airways.
Do not clear with coughing. What adventitious lung sound matches this description?

Wheeze

14

Harsh, high-pitched sounds heard over
the trachea. What adventitious lung sound matches this description?

Stridor

15

A superficial, low-pitched, coarse
rubbing or grating sound (sounds like
two surfaces rubbing together).
Heard throughout inspiration and
expiration and not cleared by coughing. What adventitious lung sound matches this description?

Pleural Friction Rub

16

Needed for blood clotting, skeletal muscle contraction, regulated by the parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, which facilitates reabsorption of calcium from bone and
enhances reabsorption from the GI tract. What electrolyte is required during these processes?

Calcium

17

1. Increased intake of dietary Mg—green vegetables, nuts, bananas, oranges, peanut butter, chocolate
2. Oral—long-term maintenance with oral magnesium
3. IV—assess renal function
4. Monitor for digitalis toxicity
5. Seizure precautions
6 Safety measures for confusion
7. Test ability to swallow before PO fluids/food because of dysphagia
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypomagnesemia

18

1. Malignant neoplastic diseases
2. Hyperparathyroidism
3. Prolonged immobilization
4. Excessive intake
5. Immobility
6. Excessive intake of calcium carbonate antacids
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypercalcemia

19

Acute Pain: Fluid intake reduced
Activation of sympathetic nervous system
Chronic Pain: Stress-induced changes

Pain has this effect on what body system?

Cardiovascular System

20

normal ionized serum calcium level:
____-____ mg/dL;
normal total serum calcium level:
____-____ mg/dL

4.5–5.2 mg/dL

8.5–10.5 mg/dL

21

1. Lack of coordination
2. Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting
3. Confusion, decreased level of consciousness
4. Personality changes
5. Dysrhythmias, heart block, cardiac arrest
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypercalcemia

22

Acute Pain: Nausea and vomiting
Chronic Pain: Constipation, anorexia

Pain has this effect on what body system?

Digestive system

23

Tap facial nerve 2 cm anterior to the earlobe just below the zygomatic arch;
twitching of facial muscles indicates tetany in hypocalcemia. What is this sign to indicate tetany called?

Chvostek’s Sign

24

This is the main intracellular ion; involved in cardiac rhythm, nerve transmission. What electrolyte is required during these processes?

Potassium

25

Potassium Normal level ___-___ mEq/L

3.5–5.0 mEq/L

26

Inflate BP cuff on upper arm to 20 mm Hg above systolic pressure, carpal
spasms within 2–5 min indicate tetany in hypocalcemia. What is this sign to indicate tetany called?

Trousseau’s Sign

27

1. EKG changes–peaked T waves, wide QRS complexes
2. Dysrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation, heart block
3. Cardiac arrest
4. Muscle twitching and weakness
5. Numbness in hands and feet and around mouth
6. Nausea
7. Diarrhea
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hyperkalemia

28

1. Restrict dietary potassium and potassium-containing medications or IV solutions
2. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (Kayexalate)—cation-exchange resin (causes diarrhea)
a. Orally—dilute to make more palatable
b. Rectally—give in conjunction with sorbitol to avoid fecal impaction
3. Peritoneal or hemodialysis
4. Diuretics
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hyperkalemia

29

1. Vomiting
2. Gastric suction
3. Prolonged diarrhea
4. Diuretics and steroids
5. Inadequate intake
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypokalemia

30

1. Anorexia, nausea, vomiting
2. Weak peripheral pulses
3. Muscle weakness, paresthesias; decreased deep tendon reflexes
4. Impaired urine concentration
5. Ventricular dysrhythmias
6. Potential for digitalis toxicity
7. Shallow respirations
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypocalcemia

31

1. Administration of oral potassium supplements—dilute in juice and give with meals to avoid gastric
irritation
2. Increase dietary intake—raisins, bananas, apricots, oranges, beans, potatoes, carrots, celery
3. Assess renal function prior to administration of IV supplements
4. Risk for digitalis toxicity
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypokalemia

32

This is the main extracellular ion; responsible for water balance. What electrolyte is required during these processes?

Sodium

33

1. Renal failure
2. Use of potassium supplements
3. Burns
4. Crushing injuries
5. Severe infection
6. Potassium-sparing diuretics
7. ACE inhibitors
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hyperkalemia

34

1. Nervous system becomes increasingly excitable
2. Tetany
3. Hyperactive reflexes
4. Confusion
5. Paresthesias
6. Irritability
7. Seizures
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypocalcemia

35

What three nursing interventions would you implement to prevent development of renal calculi?

a. Increase fluid intake
b. Maintain acidic urine
c. Prevent urinary tract infection

35

What nursing intervention would you implement for hypocalcemia and what would it be administered with?

Orally—calcium gluconate (less concentrated) or calcium chloride; administer with orange juice to
maximize absorption

36

1. Elevated temperature
2. Weakness
3. Disorientation
4. Irritability and restlessness
5. Thirst
6. Dry, swollen tongue
7. Sticky mucous membranes
8. Postural hypotension with ↓ ECF
Hypertension with normal or ↑ ECF
9. Tachycardia
10. Elderly—mental status changes, coma
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypernatremia

37

1. Vomiting
2. Diuretics
3. Excessive administration of dextrose and water IVs
4. Burns, wound drainage
5. Excessive water intake
6. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)
7. Elderly—kidneys unable to excrete free water
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hyponatremia

38

Sodium Normal level ___-___ mEq/L

135–145 mEq/L

39

This ion is interdependent with calcium. What electrolyte is required during this process?

Magnesium

40

This is the relationship between airflow and pleural pressure. What is this defined as?

Airway resistance

41

Magnesium Normal level ___-___ mEq/L

1.5–3.0 mEq/L

42

1. Increased neuromuscular irritability
2. Tremors
3. Tetany
4. Hyperactive deep tendon reflexes
5. Seizures
6. Dysrhythmias especially if hypokalemia present
7. Disorientation
8. Confusion
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypomagnesemia

45

1. Renal failure
2. Excessive magnesium administration (antacids, cathartics)
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypermagnesemia

46

1. Hypertonic tube feedings without water supplements
2. Hyperventilation
3. Diabetes insipidus
4. Ingestion of OTC drugs such as Alka-Seltzer
5. Inhaling large amounts of saltwater (near drowning)
6. Inadequate water ingestion
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypernatremia

47

1. Oral administration of sodium-rich foods—beef broth, tomato juice
2. IV lactated Ringer’s or high concentrations of NaCl (0.9%)
3. Water restriction (safer method)
4. I and O
5. Daily weight
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hyponatremia

48

1. Discontinue oral and IV Mg
3. Hemodialysis
4. Monitor reflexes
5. Teach regarding over-the-counter drugs containing Mg
6. Monitor respiratory status
7. Monitor cardiac rhythm; have calcium preparations available to antagonize cardiac depressant
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypermagnesemia

49

This population is at a greater risk of adverse reactions and toxicity, greater risk of
drug interaction between analgesics and medications, e.g., analgesics, anti-epileptics, and
antidepressants; start with lower dose and increase gradually

Elderly

50

This moves air into and out of lungs and along bronchial airways to bring oxygen into the lungs and removes CO2.

What is this function of the respiratory system?

Ventilation

51

Change: Increased blood pressure and heart rate
lead to increased blood flow to brain and muscles.
Rapid, irregular respiration leads to increased O2 supply to brain and muscles.
Result: Enhanced alertness to threats

This is what body system response to pain and result?

Cardiovascular

53

Change: Increased muscle tension or activity leads to
neuromuscular responsiveness.
Result: Ready for rapid motor activity.

This is what body system response to pain and result?

Musculoskeletal

54

1) This is the contraction of inspiratory muscles
2) Enlargement of thoracic cage
3) Reduction in intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures
4) Inflow of air until intrapulmonic pressure equals atmospheric pressure

What is this function of the respiratory system?

Inspiration

55

1. IV administration of 0.45% NaCl or 0.9% NaCl
2. Encourage fluids
3. Lasix - Excretes fluid through the urinary tract
4. Calcitonin—decreases calcium level
5. Mobilizing the patient
6. Dietary calcium restriction
7. Injury prevention
8. Limit intake of calcium carbonate antacids
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypercalcemia

56

This filters, warms, and humidifies inspired air; contains olfactory receptors for sense of smell;
older adults have restricted air flow. This is what structure of the upper respiratory system?

Nose

57

These air-filled cavities provide resonance during speech. This is what structure of the upper respiratory system?

Sinuses

58

This contains adenoids and tonsils; defense mechanisms against infection; gag-reflex. This is what structure of the upper respiratory system?

Pharynx (throat)

59

This is the smallest subdivisions of bronchi, conducting air from secondary bronchi into
alveoli. This is what structure of the lower respiratory system?

Bronchioles

60

1. Alcoholism
2. GI suction
3. Diarrhea
4. Intestinal fistulas
5. Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus
6. Malabsorption syndrome
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypomagnesemia

61

Delicate, thin-walled, minute hollow chambers within the lungs surrounded by
networks of capillaries; contain surfactant that keeps these expanded. This is what structure of the lower respiratory system?

Alveoli

62

This population has a loss of elastic recoil; increased residual volume; and increased use of
accessory muscles in the lungs.

Elderly

63

Change: Increased papillary diameter leads to
increased eye accommodation to light.
Result: Visual perception of threat.

This is what body system response to pain and result?

Neurological

64

1) Relaxation of inspiratory muscles
2) Reduction in size of thoracic cage
3) Increase in intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures
4) Outflow of air until intrapulmonic pressure equals atmospheric pressure

What is this function of the respiratory system?

Expiration

65

1) Rate in adult is 12 to 20 breaths per minute
2) Smooth with an even respiratory depth
3) Easy, relaxed; requiring minimal effort
4) Symmetric chest wall movement
5) May be abdominal (commonly seen in men) or thoracic (common in women)

What type of breathing pattern is this a desciption of?

Eupnea
Normal Breathing Pattern

66

This causes an increase in intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures; gases in the pleural cavity
are expelled until intrapulmonic and atmospheric pressures equalize. What is this defined as?

Expiration

67

The right lung has __ lobes; the left lung has __ lobes.

3

68

1. Depresses the CNS
2. Depresses cardiac impulse transmission
3. Cardiac arrest
4. Facial flushing
5. Muscle weakness
6. Absent deep tendon reflexes
7. Paralysis
8. Shallow respirations
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypermagnesemia

69

a. Patent airway
b. Elastic, expansive lungs and tracheobronchial tree
c. Adequate musculoskeletal apparatus of chest wall

This is required for what type of ventilation?

Effective Ventilation

70

Diaphragm and Intercostal ______ enhance inspiration and expiration.

Muscles

71

Contraction of diaphragm and intercostal muscles, resulting in downward expansion of the thoracic cavity and elevation of the rib cage. What is this defined as?

Inspiration

72

Passive action involving deflation of lungs, relaxation of thoracic musculature,
and reduction in the size of the thoracic cavity. What is this defined as?

Expiration

73

__________ muscles may be used in pathological states or after exercise when additional
expansion is needed; abdominal muscles may be used during coughing

Accessory

74

This pressure in the lungs is normally negative (below atmospheric pressures). What is this defined as?

Intrapleural pressure

75

When lung compliance is lowered, the respiratory effort is __________.

Increased

76

This causes a reduction in intrapleural and intrapulmonic pressures; air enters the lungs until the intrapulmonic and atmospheric pressures equalize. What is this defined as?
equalize

Inspiration

77

Low-pitched, coarse, loud, moaning/
snoring sounds heard primarily on
expiration, but may be present on
inspiration, arise from large airways.
Coughing may clear. What adventitious lung sound matches this description?

Sonorous Wheeze (Ronchi)

78

1) Highest airway resistance is in the _____.

2) Lowest resistance in the _________.
3) Airway problems (e.g., emphysema) _____ airway resistance.

Nose
Bronchioles
Increase

79

1. IV administration of hypotonic solution
—0.3% NaCl or 0.45% NaCl; 5% dextrose in water
2. Offer fluids at regular intervals
3. Decrease sodium in diet
4. Daily weight
These are nursing interventions for what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypernatremia

80

FINISH RESPIRATORY OVERVIEW

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81

Caused by central nervous system disorders, drugs that increase sensitivity of respiratory centers, or acute anxiety. What type of breathing pattern is caused by this?

Hyperventilation

82

Temporary cessation of breathing. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Apnea

83

1. Nausea
2. Muscle cramps
3. Confusion
4. Muscular twitching, coma
5. Seizures
6. Headache
7. Delirium in older adults
These are signs and symptoms of what electrolyte imbalance?

Hyponatremia

84

1. Hypoparathyroidism
2. Pancreatitis
3. Renal failure
4. Steroids and loop diuretics
5. Inadequate intake
6. Post-thyroid surgery
These ailments can cause what electrolyte imbalance?

Hypocalcemia

85

Abnormally deep breathing. What type of breathing pattern is this?

Hyperpnea