Exam 5 Flashcards Preview

Animal health > Exam 5 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 5 Deck (48):
1

4 components of the circulatory system

1) blood
2) blood vessels
3) lymph system
4) heart

2

Circulatory systems function as a

- Transportation system to supply all the body tissues with nourishment and to collect and remove waste materials from the cells

3

Lymph collects in the ducts right before emptying into the right and left

- subclavian veins and rejoining circulation

4

Lymphatic capillaries

- collect excess tissue fluid

5

Lymph nodes

- filter tissue fluid (lymph)

6

How does blood leave the heart?

- arteries and travels to the tissues

7

How does blood return to the heart?

- in the veins

8

Functions of circulatory system

- distribute nutrients
- transport and exchange carbon dioxide and oxygen
- removal of waste materials
- distribution of endocrine system
- prevention of excessive bleeding
- combat infection
- regulate body temperature

9

Blood comprises what percent of the body weight

8%

10

Blood is composed of

1) plasma
2) blood cells
3) platelets

11

Plasma

- liquid component of blood
- 50% to 60% of blood volume
- 90% water
- 10% nutrients, proteins, small molecules

12

Blood serum

- plasma without the fibrinogen

13

Fibrinogen

- a protein that participates in blood clotting

14

Erythrocytes

- red blood cells
- formed in red bone marrow
- stored in the bloodstream, liver and spleen
- liver separates and destroys worn out RBCs

15

Mammals erythrocytes vs birds erythrocytes

- not nucleated, disc shaped

- nucleated, oval shaped

16

Hemoglobin

- iron containing protein
- responsible for the red color of erythrocytes

17

Leucocytes

- white blood cells
- larger than RBC
- there are fewer
- have a nucleus
- capable of passing through capillary walls (motile)
- engulf and destroy invading organisms
- are formed in the bone marrow and lymph nodes

18

Platelets

- small colorless disk-shaped cell fragment (no nucleus)
- involved in clotting

when tissue is damaged: used to undergo structural changes by piling on each other to form the primary plug
- changes lead to release of granules, plasma proteins are recruited and activated
- formation of the blood clot when plasma proteins and granules come together (secondary plug)

19

Blood vessels

- the vascular system is a closed tubular network

20

Two circulatory subsystems in series

1) the pulmonary circulation

2) systemic circulation

21

Each circulation has 3 major divisions

1) the distribution system
2) the perfusion/exchange system
3) the collecting system

22

Arteries

- blood is conveyed to the tissues through the them
- thick wall (muscle and connective tissue, elastic)
- expand as the heart pumps and then contracts (forces blood along course)
- divides into smaller and smaller branches (arterioles)

23

Arterioles

- small branches of the arteries

24

Capillaries

- minute, thin walled vessels
- form networks of connecting tubes between arteries and veins
- food nutrients and oxygen diffuse through the walls of them into the tissues
- carbon dioxide and waste products from the tissues get into the blood through their wall

25

Veins

- form the network system that collects blood
- form the capillaries to the heart (small veins are venules, they coalesce to form large veins).
- thin walled and elastic
- valves prevent backflow
- muscular activity applies pressure on the veins, forcing blood along its way (squeeze while giving blood)

26

Lymph

- clear, colorless liquid
- except when fatty acids give milky appearance when from intestine during digestion
- at capillary level, plasma filters through the walls
- most fluid reabsorbed into venous capillaries
- excess material picked up by its system
- once fluid enters their capillaries becomes this

27

Lymph system

- one way structure of capillaries, vessels and glands
- returns the lymph to the circulatory system
- along the course of the lymph vessels are lymph nodes

28

Lymphnodes

- glands that filter our infectious organisms and other foreign substances
- produce lymphocytes to destroy invading bacteria

29

Heart

- muscular organ
- located in the thorax

30

4 cavities or chambers of the heart

1) the upper two cavities
- right and left auricles (atrium)

2) the lower two chambers
- right and left ventricles


- they keep blood flowing in proper direction

31

What assists in blood flow of the heart?

- cava vein
- right atrium
- pulmonary artery to lung
- lung to pulmonary artery
- left atrium
- left ventricle
- aorta
- capillary beds

32

Signs of circulatory system disturbance

1) abnormal pulse rate

2) distention of peripheral blood vessels

3) anemia

33

Tachycardia

- abnormally rapid heart rate

34

Increase in pulse rate is expected in:

1) febrile diseases

2) severe hemorrhages

3) diseases accompanied by pain, excitement, delirium or mania

35

Bradycardia

- abnormally slow pulse rate
- not as common as tachycardia
- can occur in:
1) diseases that cause pressure on the brain
2) comatose conditions
3) just prior to death of an animal

36

Disturbance/distention of blood vessels

- abnormal pulsation of peripheral arteries and veins
- strong persistent pulse in veins

37

Permanent distention in veins

- when heart is unable to maintain normal circulation
- easily observed in jugular and mammary veins

38

Abnormal conditions of circulatory system

- bleeding
- blood in secretions (milk)
- blood in excretions (feces and urine)
- anemia
- edema
- hematoma
- schock

39

Anemia

- a condition marked by a deficiency of RBC or of hemoglobin, resulting in pallor or weariness

40

Edema

- an abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body

- characterized by pitting under pressure, a hollow spot forms and remains for a short time when the finger is used to apply pressure

- caused by impairment of circulatory system, improper drainage of lymph, increased capillary pressure, lowered osmotic pressure of the blood, injury to capillary wall, nutritional imbalances

41

Hematoma

- an abnormal collection of blood outside of a vessel

-caused because the wall of a blood vessel, artery, vein or capillary has been damaged and blood has leaked into tissues where it does not belong

42

Shock

- a circulatory deficiency characterized by a decreased blood flow

- characterized by a dilation of the capillaries, low arterial and venous pressures and reduction in blood volume

- dilation of the capillaries enable fluids to escape, load up the lymph system and result in edema

- can result from severe injury, overexertion, poisoning, surgery, hemorrhage, contact with electricity, sensitivity to antibiotics, serums

43

Anaplasmosis

- noncontagious, infectious disease of cattle most common when in warm, bushy, wet areas
- characterized by anemia (destruction of erythrocytes)

- caused by a minute parasite

-ticks are the main vectors (also tools w blood)

44

Clinical signs of anaplasmosis

- acute anemia
- all ages
- membranes yellow and jaundiced
- blood will show it to be thin and watery

- weak, depressed, pale membranes, dehydrated, increased heart rate, respiratory distress if excited

45

Hemolytic icterus of foals

- affects foals during first 3 days of life

- characterized by depression, jaundice, weakness and hemoglobinuria
- caused by incompatibility of the foals blood to specific antibodies in the colostrum of the mare
- arises when mare is bred to a stallion with different blood type and the foal inherits the blood type of the sire

- similar diseases in calves and pigs

46

Steps hemolytic icterus occur in foals

1) some of blood cells of foal enter the dams circulatory system
2) dam develops antibodies against the foals BC
3) the colostrum contains high levels of antibodies
4) when the foal nurses the antibodies are absorbed
5) they cause clumping and a breakdown of the foals RBC, results in anemia

- usually occurs with the second or third foal from this incompatible blood type mating

47

Equine infectious anemia

- transmission of blood feeding insects between horses in close proximity
- virus remains in the blood of animals that recover
- infected animals shed the virus in discharges(eyes and nose, saliva, urine, manure, mares milk and semen)

- coggins test required for travel, shows etc to check

48

Anemia of suckling pigs

- a condition in which the blood is deficient in either quantity or quality

- characterized by paleness of skin and mucous membranes, fatigue and labored breathing

- commonly caused by iron deficiency
- can also be due to copper, cobalt or vitamin deficiencies