Flashcards in Exam Deck (24):

1

## Define Argument

### An argument is a collection of propositions (premises) used to support a conclusion

2

## Define Proposition

###
A proposition is a declarative statement with truth values

E.g Claim, assertion

3

## A proposition must have a ________ and ___________

### A proposition must have a SUBJECT and PREDICATE (the information)

4

## Define Conclusion

### A statement that is supported by premises and promotes a belief

5

## Define Premise

### Propositions/reasons used to support the conclusion

6

## Define Vagueness

###
A proposition where the truth value is unclear due to fuzzy boundaries

E.g Alfred is tall

7

## Define Ambiguous

###
If the truth value of the proposition could have multiple meanings

E.g The duchess can't bear children

8

## Subjective Proposition

### The Truth Value is dependent on personal opinion

9

## Objective Proposition

### The Truth Value is not dependant on personal opinion

10

## Define Valid Argument

### An argument with a structure such that if the premise is true than the conclusion is guaranteed

11

## Define Invalid

### An argument with a structure such that if the premises are true the conclusion is not guaranteed

12

## Define Strong Argument

### An argument with a structure such that if the premises were true than the conclusion would be likely

13

## Define Weak Argument

### An argument with a structure such that if the premise were true than the conclusion would be unlikely

14

## Define Sound Argument

### An argument with a valid structure and true premises

15

## Define Unsound Argument

### An argument which either an invalid structure or a false premise

16

## Disjunctive Syllogism

###
Valid

A or B

Not B

A

17

## Conditional Propositions contain __________ and ____________

### Conditional Propositions contain an antecedent and consequent

18

## Valid Forms of Conditional Proposition

###
AA + DC

Affirming Antecedent and Denying Consequent

19

## Invalid Forms of Conditional Propositions

###
AC + DA

Affirming Consequent and Denying Antecedent

20

## Affirming Antecedent - Modus Ponens

###
If A, then B

A

B

21

## Denying the Consequent - Modus Tollens

###
If A, then B

Not B

Not A

22

## Hypothetical Syllogism

###
If A, then B

If B, then C

So If A then C

23

## Hypothetical Fallacy

###
Slippery Slope Fallacy

Weak/False Conditional

Valid and Unsound

24