Exam Flashcards Preview

CORE 1 > Exam > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam Deck (24):
1

Define Argument

An argument is a collection of propositions (premises) used to support a conclusion

2

Define Proposition

A proposition is a declarative statement with truth values

E.g Claim, assertion

3

A proposition must have a ________ and ___________

A proposition must have a SUBJECT and PREDICATE (the information)

4

Define Conclusion

A statement that is supported by premises and promotes a belief

5

Define Premise

Propositions/reasons used to support the conclusion

6

Define Vagueness

A proposition where the truth value is unclear due to fuzzy boundaries

E.g Alfred is tall

7

Define Ambiguous

If the truth value of the proposition could have multiple meanings

E.g The duchess can't bear children

8

Subjective Proposition

The Truth Value is dependent on personal opinion

9

Objective Proposition

The Truth Value is not dependant on personal opinion

10

Define Valid Argument

An argument with a structure such that if the premise is true than the conclusion is guaranteed

11

Define Invalid

An argument with a structure such that if the premises are true the conclusion is not guaranteed

12

Define Strong Argument

An argument with a structure such that if the premises were true than the conclusion would be likely

13

Define Weak Argument

An argument with a structure such that if the premise were true than the conclusion would be unlikely

14

Define Sound Argument

An argument with a valid structure and true premises

15

Define Unsound Argument

An argument which either an invalid structure or a false premise

16

Disjunctive Syllogism

Valid

A or B
Not B
A

17

Conditional Propositions contain __________ and ____________

Conditional Propositions contain an antecedent and consequent

18

Valid Forms of Conditional Proposition

AA + DC

Affirming Antecedent and Denying Consequent

19

Invalid Forms of Conditional Propositions

AC + DA

Affirming Consequent and Denying Antecedent

20

Affirming Antecedent - Modus Ponens

If A, then B
A
B

21

Denying the Consequent - Modus Tollens

If A, then B
Not B
Not A

22

Hypothetical Syllogism

If A, then B
If B, then C
So If A then C

23

Hypothetical Fallacy

Slippery Slope Fallacy
Weak/False Conditional

Valid and Unsound

24

Disjunctive Fallacy

False Dilemma
Dodgy Disjunction

Either you vote labour or you hate refugees

Valid Unsound