Exam I: General Concepts Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > Exam I: General Concepts > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam I: General Concepts Deck (89):
1

Contralateral – Ipsilateral

Used in terms of neurons
Contralateral: neuron starting on one side and switching to the opposite side
Ipsilateral: neuron continuing to run on the same side

2

Dorsal Body Cavities

Cranial and Vertebral
(posterior)

3

Ventral Body Cavities

Thoracic and Abdominopelvic separated by the diaphragm
Thoracic contains: pleural, mediastinum, pericardial, and superior mediastinum
Abdominopelvic contains: abdominal and pelvic

4

Serous Membranes

Two membrane system (although only made of one membrane like the balloon example)
Parietal: lines the cavity wall
Visceral: lines the organ
Serous: fluid in between the parietal and visceral

Pericardial: Heart
Pleural: Lungs
Peritoneal: Abdominal
Retroperitoneal: Behind the abdomen

5

Cephalic

head

6

Frontal

forehead

7

Orbital

eye

8

Buccal

cheek

9

Mental

chin

10

Nasal

nose

11

Oral

mouth

12

Cervical

neck

13

Deltoid

shoulder

14

Axillary

armpit

15

Brachial

arm

16

Antebrachial

forearm

17

Antecubital

front of elbow

18

Coxal

hip

19

Carpal

wrist

20

Palmar

palm

21

Digital

finger

22

Femoral

thigh

23

Patellar

knee

24

Crural

leg

25

Pes/Pedal

foot

26

Tarsal

ankle

27

Dorsum of the foot

top of the foot

28

Pubic

pubic area

29

Inguinal

groin

30

Pelvic

pelvis area

31

Abdominal

abdomen

32

Mammary

breast
part of thoracic section

33

Pectoral

chest
part of thoracic section

34

Sternal

sternum
part of thoracic section

35

Otic

ear

36

Occipital

back of head

37

Vertebral

spinal column

38

Olecranal

elbow

39

Sacral

sacrum

40

Gluteal

buttock

41

Dorsum of the hand

top of the hand

42

Calcaneal

heel

43

Popliteal

back of the knee

44

Perineal

anything between the legs; anus, reproductive structures

45

Lumbar

lower back

46

Functions of the Skeletal System

1. Supports: soft tissues and provides attachment for skeletal muscles
2. Protects: internal organs
3. Movement: assists in movement with skeletal muscles
4. Storage: store and releases minerals
5. Blood Cell Production (Hematopoiesis): bone marrow gives rise to blood cells; spleen and liver involved

47

Axial vs. Appendicular Skeleton

Axial: skull, vertebrae, and ribs
Appendicular: appendages, pelvis

48

Long, Short, Flat, Irregular, and Sesamoid Bones

Long Bones: greater length than width

Short Bones: cube-shaped, equal in length and width

Flat Bones: thin and composed of two nearly parallel plate of compact bone

Irregular Bones: cannot be placed into any other group; complex shapes.

Sesamoid Bones: small nodules of bone that are found in certain tendons, and not really connected to other bones ex. patella

49

Parts of a Long Bone

Diaphysis- middle/shaft
Epiphysis- end of bone
Metaphysis- between the diaphysis and epiphysis
Medullary Cavity- contains the spongy bone/blood vessels (can be red or yellow marrow)
Endosteum- lining the inside of the bone/medullary cavity
Periosteum- covering the outside of the bone
Articular Cartilage- cartilage outside of the epiphysis to decrease friction between sliding bones

50

Cells of Bone

Osteoprogenitor cells differentiate into osteoblasts, which then become surrounded in the secreted matrix and become osteocytes
Monocytes (phagocytic) differentiate into osteoclasts, which are made of fused marrow cells

51

Intramembranous Ossification

Occurs when osteoblasts produce bones of the skull
Mesenchymal models of bones undergo ossification
1. Start in mesenchymal tissue where osteoblasts are converting to osteocytes once surrounded by the hardened matrix
2. Other osteoblasts spread out into the surrounding mesenchymal tissue to ossify it
3. Cartilage and mesenchymal tissue don’t need blood/vasculature, but once enough bone formed, then new vessel formation to supply it with blood/nutrients
4. Once the bones are finished, we have compact and trabecular bone right in the center with blood vessels
5. Outside have periosteum with osteoprogenitor cells in case need them to differentiate

52

Endochondrial Ossification

Forms from cartilage models via hyaline cartilage
Bone forms in ossification centers
1. Invasion of cartilage with blood vessels so cells can enter= primary ossification center with bone collar surrounding it
2. Once the cartilage is gone, the blood vessel in the primary ossification center wants to expand towards the ends- epiphysis have secondary ossification centers and we start to form the medullary cavity
3. We have the epiphyseal plate between the primary and secondary ossification centers so the bone can continue to grow
4. Once the epiphyseal plates divides to its extent, then it disappears and develops into a solid line

53

Interstitial vs. Appositional Bone Growth

Interstitial: growth occurs longitudinally
Appositional: widening of bone using osteoblasts and osteoclasts to expand the shaft and increase the diameter of the medullary cavity

54

Blood Supply and Innervation of Bone

Arteries: periosteal, nutrient, epiphyseal, and metaphyseal
Nutrient arteryr goes in the medullary cavity that was in the primary ossification center
Metaphyseal and nutrient arteries make a connection in order to supply enough blood

Nerves: pain fibers to periosteum, and vasomotor fibers to blood vessels (control the amount of blood supply to the bones by constriction or dilation

55

Types of Movement

1. Synarthrosis: immovable joint
2. Amphiarthrosis: slightly movable joint
3. Diarthrosis: freely movable joint

56

Fibrous Joints

1. Strengthen sutures

2. Gomphosis: periodontal membrane is the fibrous connection between the tooth and the bone

3. Syndesmosis: slightly movable joint in which the tibia and fibula are joined together by a membrane of fibrous connective tissue running between the bones

57

Uniaxial Synovial Joints

moving in one plane
1. Gliding/Planar- short bones within the hand (carpal bones)
2. Pivot- vertebral column with skull (shake head "no")
3. Hinge- knee, elbow, fingers, toes; flex or extend

58

Biaxial Synovial Joints

Two planes of movement
1.. Condyloid- ovoid articular structure; metacarpal bones in the hand coming back and attaching to metacarpal bones in the wrist; flexion, extention, and medial

2.Saddle- opposing surfaces are reciprocally concave-convex; 1st metacarpal bones with the carpal bones, especially in thumb

3. Ball and Socket- arm and shoulder joint

59

Body Planes

Frontal/Coronal: divides anterior from posterior
Sagittal: divides body right from left
Transverse: divides body top from bottom

60

Acromial

shoulder blade/scapula

61

Hallux

Big toe

62

Pollux

Thumb

63

Fibular

lateral part of the leg

64

Cephalic

towards the head

65

Sural

back of the leg/calf; made of gastrocnemius and soleus

66

Cartilaginous Joints

1. Synchondroses: connecting medium is hyaline cartilage like the epiphyseal plate

2. Symphyses: fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones such as the pubic symphyses or intervertebral disc

67

Synovial Joints

Gets the most movement
Every synovial joint will have: joint capsule made of the synovial membrane which produces synovial fluid, and fibrous membrane, which covers the whole joint and provides strength
Articular cavity: surrounding the joint capsule on both sides of the cavity we will have cartilage; cavity contains the synovial fluid

Articular disc: look like wedges, ring, or disc of cartilage; area of cartilage for joint to sit on (minicus for example)
Fat pad: inside the capsule to cushion the joint so we don’t irritate the structures beneath it
Tendons with sheath around them (have synovial sheath with synovial fluid to slide back and forth); irritation = tendonitis
Bursa: a membrane bound structure filled with synovial fluid; not the same fluid as the one in the joint to act as a cushion; if we irritate the bursa – bursitis

68

Bicondylar Joints

Once we add more plane of movement, more problems can occur because less stability
Shoulders, hips, etc.
Formed by two convex condyles that articulate with a concave or flat surface
Knee joint- sit in concave areas
Still have one axis, but have limited rotation around a second axis

69

Multiaxial Synovial Joints Ball-and-Socket

Many planes and most movement with a price…. Less stability
Shoulders and hips
Support the structure with many muscles and tendons to add stability

70

Collateral Circulation and Anastromosis

Collateral circulation- multiple lines of blood coming into the same area

Anastramosis: main vessels coming down and fuse

Especially larger joints we see these things– if we do damage to one vessel, we have other ones to back it up/supply blood

71

Extension vs. Flexion

Flexion: decreasing the angle between the two bones
Extension: increasing the angle between the two bones
Past 180: hyperextension – can do that with your neck

72

Abduction vs. Adduction

Adduction: adding to the body– bringing the arm and bringing it to the body
Abduction: moving the arm away, or body part away– subtracting from the body

73

Circumduction

Flexion, entension, adduction, and abduction all blended together

74

Lateral Flexion

“side bending”

75

Rotation

Flexed laterally is out and medially is towards the body
Pivoting the arm (humerus)

76

Dorsiflexion vs. Plantarflexion

Plantarflexion: up on the toes where toes are down and heel is up
Doriflexion: where heel is down and toes are up
When you walk you change between plantar and dorsiflexion continuously

77

Inversion vs. Eversion

Inversion: soles of feet together so facing each other
Eversion: face soles of the feet outwards
When walking there is slight inversion and eversion

78

Pronation vs. Supination

Supination: palms are facing down and turn them up
Pronation: palms are facing up and turn them down

79

Protraction vs. Retraction

Protraction: sticking chin out
Retraction: chin in

80

Opposition

Pinky to thumb

81

Layers of Muscle

Fascia is the more important one between muscle and fascia because it interconnects everything
Epimysium: covering of connective tissue that runs and combines with fascia, tendon, and eventually the bone
Perimysium: around a fascicle
Endomysium: around the muscle fiber

82

Origin, Insertion, and Reference Reversal

Origin: is not moving; end of a muscle that is attached to a fixed bone
Insertion: end of a muscle that is attached to the bone that moves
Reference reversal: switch the use of the muscle/use the muscles in the opposite way

83

Ligament, Tendon, Aponeurosis

Ligament: attaches bone to bone
Tendon: attachment between muscle and bone; dense regular connective tissue
Aponeurosis: flat tendon such as in the abdomen; are layers of flat broad tendons; are histologically similar to tendons, and are very sparingly supplied with blood vessels and nerves

84

Naming of Muscles

Muscle action (function)
Specific body region
Muscle attachment: biceps brachii (arm); fibularis (to the fibula), retus capitus major (attaches to the back of the head)
Shape and size: adductor magnus (big muscle); deltoid (shape)
Heads or tendons of origin: quadriceps (4)
Orientation of muscle fibers: how they are running

85

Prime Mover, Synergist, Fixator, and Antagonist

Prime mover: the muscle that is contributing the most
Synergist: assist the prime mover; don’t play the biggest role but help
Fixator: provides stability
Antagonist: moves the opposite of the prime mover

86

Motor Unit of a Muscle

There are more muscle cells to neurons ratio
Neuron comes into an area and branches off and goes to multiple muscle cells so when the neuron is excited it will excite every muscle cell that is it in contact with

Types of movements that occur depend on the ratios
Smaller movement have smaller ratios
Fine motor control have more neurons to muscle (instead of 1: 10, its 5:10 for example)

87

Basic Concepts of Muscles

Movements are performed by GROUPS
Different segments of a muscle can have different actions
Innervated on DEEP surface of belly
Muscle compartments usually share function, attachment, nerves, vessels

88

Fascia

Two types: superficial and deep
Function: provide strength, compartmentalization, and ease of movement
Example: In the leg there is a thick fascia = compartmentalize the muscles to help with strength and provide easier movement
Composition: ECM, collagen (structure), elastin (elasticity), and reticular (support)
Cells: fibroblasts, adipose (especially superficially), macrophages, and mast cells

1. Superficial: broken into (a) superficial (usually the fatty layer especially on abdomen), and (b) deep (membranous)
2. Deep investing fascia: very thick, cannot tear it; continuous that runs into the joints and muscles

89

Deep Fascia Specializations

Fibrous sheath on fingers

Muscle attachment

Neurovascular sheath encased in the fascia
example: carotid nerve sheath in the neck

Retinacula: thick fascia as seen on the hand

Intermuscular septa: divides muscle into sections/compartments

Because it forms compartments, damage can really effect the muscle groups; if blood hemorrhage occurs, there is not a lot of give, so surrounding vessels are closed off from pressure and this causes compartment syndrome and needs fasciectomy to treat it