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Flashcards in Exam Three Deck (58)
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1

According to the CFR, butter has to be at least how much fat?

80%

2

According to the CFR, cream has to be at least how much fat?

18%

3

Two ways of butter spoilage

Microbial and lipolysis

4

Cows' diet to product the softest butter

Beets/hay

5

Cows' diet to product the hardest butter

Grass/dried pulp/hay

6

Function of skimming in butter production

Reduction of fat loss
Reduction of size of churner
Reduction of volume of butter milk to 40% cream

7

Function of pasteurization in butter production

Inactivate microbes/enzymes
Makes butter more resistant to oxidation
Can remove volatiles if pasteurized under a vacuum

8

Function of ripening in butter production

Helps fat crystallize

9

How does ripening speed affect butter's texture?

Too fast: weak texture - entrapment of free fatty acids and glycerides
Too slow: susceptible to microbial growth

10

Function of washing in butter production

Controls the butter's temperature

11

Function of working in butter production

Transforms butter grains to continuous mass
Homogenizes moisture
Regulates moisture content
Incorporates salt

12

According to the CFR, half and half has to be at least how much fat?

10.5%

13

According to the CFR, double cream has to be at least how much fat?

48%

14

Why is coffee creamer shelf stable?

Coffee creamer is homogenized under high pressure and has added polyphosphates

15

Basic ice cream composition

10-16% fat
9-12% MSNF
9-15% sucrose
0-6% CSS
0-0.5% S/E

16

Function of pasteurization in ice cream production

Destroys pathogen
Helps ingredients disperse

17

Batch pasteurization requirements for ice cream

155F for 30 min.

18

HTST pasteurization requirements for ice cream

175 for 25 sec.

19

Function of homogenization in ice cream production

Reduces fat droplets
Reduces potential for fat churning
Allows for higher fat content

20

Function of aging in ice cream production

Causes initial fat crystallization
Hydration of milk ingredients
Emulsifiers displace proteins at fat/serum interface

21

Compare freezing required to make packaged products, soft serve, and frozen confections

Packaged: agitation/quiescent
Soft serve: agitation
Frozen confection: quiescent

22

Ice cream freezer phenomena

Rapid nucleation of small ice crystals
Solutes and colloidal substances are concentrated in unfrozen water
Fat is destabilized
Air is whipped into the mix

23

Latent heat

Energy required to cause a change of state

24

Sensible heat

Energy required to cause a change in temperature

25

Dynamic freezing phenomena

Ice crystals form on the outside of freezer chamber - constantly scraped off
Air incorporation
Fat is partially destabilized

26

Batch freezing

Lower draw temp
Freezing is determined by temp, time, and torque of machine
A: low capital investment, small footprint, easy to operate, short change over time,
small batch size, easy to clean
D: small production capacity, slower freezing, higher potential for operator induced
variability, manual inclusion addition, impossible to fully automate packaging, lack of
overrun control

27

Continuous freezing

Higher draw temp
Freezing is determined by draw temp, product viscosity, overrun, mix flow rate, ice cream flow rate
A: higher production capacity, faster freezing, higher dasher velocity, highly automated
- less error
D: higher capital costs, external utilities, product changeovers can be time consuming,
difficult to make small batches

28

Purpose of hardening ice cream

Freezes the rest of the water

29

Limits the shelf life of ice cream

Temperature cycling and heat shock

30

Purpose of fat in ice cream

Melts/crystallizes
Unctuous/creamy flavor
Cold depressant
Contributes to mix viscosity
Contributes to extrusion stiffness

31

Purpose of MSNF in ice cream

Fat emulsification
Aeration (overrun development)
Structure/texture
Mix apparent viscosity

32

Methods of milk concentration

Evaporation, membrane processes, freeze concentration

33

Purpose of sucrose in ice cream

Sweetness
Freezing point depression
Total solids

34

Purpose of CSS in ice cream

Sweetness
Bulk
Heat shock protection

35

Purpose of stabilizers in ice cream

Build apparent viscosity
Promotes smooth texture
Helps prevent growth of ice crystals during temperature fluctuation

36

Purpose of emulsifiers in ice cream

Surface active agents
Promotes destabilized fat
Enhance whipability
Promotes dryness/stiffness

37

Recipe

How many units of ingredients

38

Ingredient

A material used to make a product

39

Formula

Percentage of components in a product

40

Component

A specific attribute that be used for in a formula

41

Standardization

Process of recombining dairy ingredients to product a product meeting a specific constituent analysis

42

Functions of proteins in foods

Stabilize emulsions
Increase foaming
Presents moisture migration
Novel functionalities

43

Types of casein (w/ characteristics)

Rennet: loss of 4% due to caseinomacropeptide - low water solubility
Acid: skim milk is acidified to pH 4.6 - caseins precipitate in lumps then dried - low water solubility
Caseinates: acid precipitate is redissolved in basic solution
Micellar: taken from milk - microfiltration at 0.1 um pore size then diafiltration

44

Protein content of whey protein concentrate

35-80%

45

Protein content of whey protein isolate

90%

46

Maillard browning of whey proteins (ADV/DADV)

A: reduces allergenicity, increases emulsion stability
D: loss of nutritional value, browning, difficult to control

47

Advantages of milk powders

Retain quality in challenging conditions
Reduce mass and volume
Balance between supply and demand
Irreplaceable ingredient in hot climates
Food reserve in emergency

48

Milk powder production

Spray drying

49

Flowability

Ability of a powder to flow freely

50

Wettability

Time to penetrate a still surface of water

51

Dispersability

Ability of a wetted aggregate to disperse

52

Hygroscopicity

Ability to absorb moisture from the air

53

Dead-end filtration

Flow of feed is perpendicular to membrane

54

Cross-flow filtration

Flow of feed is parallel to membrane

55

Types of membrane filtration by pore size

Traditional> micro>ultra>dia>nano>reverse osmosis

56

Microfiltratrion

Removes bacteria

57

Ultrafiltration

Used to produce WPC/MPC
Protein standardization and protein concentration

58

Diafiltration

Completely removes, replaces, or lowers the concentration of the small molecules like lactose and salts - includes addition of water