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Flashcards in Exam Unit 314 Deck (100)
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1

Radiation can be:
Seen
Heard
Felt
None of the above

None of the above

2

Quality assurance in radiography is a?

Legal requirement

3

Recall patients who have a high caries risk should have bitewings at what intervals?

6 months

4

What is the purpose of black paper in intraoral film packets?

Prevents exposure of the film to light

5

What is classed as a safe level of X-ray exposure?

There isn't a safe level

6

What are extraoral cassettes marked with?

The letter L

7

What type of waste are X-ray processing chemicals?

Non-infectious hazardous

8

What is the reason for the exposure fault elongation of the image?

Collimator angulation too shallow

9

what is the reason for the exposure fault foreshortening of the image?

Collimator angulation too shallow

10

What is the reason for the exposure fault Ccning?

Collimator angulation is not central

11

What is the reason for the exposure fault blurred image?

Patient or collimator moved during exposure

12

what is the reason for the exposure fault fogged film?

exposed to light before exposure

13

intraoral films are what colour?

pale green

14

what is the reason for the exposure fault blank film?

X-ray machine not switched on

15

what causes a crazed pattern on the film?

film dried too quickly over a strong heat source

16

which legislation states that waste developer chemicals should be collected by licensed waste contractors?

Environmental protection act

17

whose responsibility is it to adhere to the principles of justification and optimisation?

IRMER practitioner
Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations

18

What should a lateral oblique radiograph show?

Posterior portion of one side of the mandible

19

If a film which had been developed showed severe angulation faults what quality grade would it be given?

3

20

What quality score would be given to a radiograph that wasn't as dark as usual due to chemicals becoming spent, but was still readable?

2

21

Details must be provided to show analysis of a radiograph has taken place as part of the quality assurance log. Which grades must this be completed for?

All grades

22

The quality assurance log should demonstrate that what percentage of radiographs have been graded a 1 as a minimum?

70%

23

According to IRR99 the controlled area should be what distance from the machine head?

1.5m

24

The pimple of an X-ray should be?

facing the x-ray tube

25

According to IRR99 the safety zone should be what distance from the machine head?

2m

26

Stochastic effects are what?

Effects that occur by chance and which may occur without a threshold level of dose.

27

If X-ray equipment appears to be damaged or leaking who should be notified?

The RPA (radiation protection advisor)

28

What do X-ray photons do to the silver halide crystals that cover a film?

Penetrate them to reach the film

29

What does a chronic periapical abscess show up as on an X-ray?

Circular area at the apex of a tooth

30

If a dentist wanted to assess existing restorations on LL6 and 7 what would be the best radiograph to take?

Bitewing

31

Which periapical technique allows for the actual tooth length to be captured?

Paralleling

32

Which type of radiograph is used extensively in orthodontics, in comparison to others?

Cephalostats

33

Bitewings should show:

The crowns of premolar and molar teeth

34

Developer converts the sensitised silver halide crystals on a film into black metallic silver which produces which parts of the image?

White parts

35

Why should X-ray solutions be kept covered?

To reduce oxidisation

36

What is used to take a digital X-ray?

Sensor plate

37

During digital radiographs X-ray energy is released as light and converted into what?

Photons

38

What is the main reason out of date film should not be used?

Film will not expose correctly

39

What do intraoral film packets have to help identify the correct orientation?

Marked with a pimple

40

The larger the number on an X-ray film packet:

The larger the film

41

How many steps are there in manual film processing?

Four

42

Bitewings are used for?

Detection of caries

43

Which step out of the following helps prevent a large radiolucent area near the palate as seen on panoramic X-rays?
By the patient smiling with their lips closed
By the patient smiling with their lips open
By the patient placing their tongue in the roof of their mouth
Having the patient bite on a fixed bite block

By the patient placing their tongue in the roof of their mouth

44

At what point can the red safety light be switched off?

Red light needs to stay on until the film is fixed, at this stage normal lights can then be placed on

45

In manual processing a film should be immersed in developer for:

5 minutes

46

In manual processing a film should be immersed in fixer for:

8-10 minutes

47

Processing chemicals should be disposed of as:

Non infectious chemical waste

48

Digital radiography eliminates the need for:

Chemicals

49

Orthopantomographs show:

Both jaws in full and all teeth

50

Cephalostats are used extensively in:

Orthodontics

51

A lateral oblique radiograph shows:

The jaw and molar teeth of either left or right hand side

52

Extraoral cassettes contain how many intensifying screens

2 intensifying screens

53

Occlusal radiographs show:

Either mandible or maxilla

54

The two techniques used to take periapical xray’s are

Bisecting angle and paralleling

55

Which is the best radiograph to take for assessment of the antral floor?

OPG

56

A patient attends with a suspected carious lesion in the lower right first molar tooth. Which radiographic view would normally be taken to diagnose this lesion?
Dental pantomograph
Horizontal bite-wing
Occlusal
Periapical
Vertical bite-wing

Horizontal bite-wing
This view is routinely used to view the interproximal areas of the posterior teeth.

57

The stages of manual chemical processing are:

Develop, wash, fix, wash, dry

58

How often should regular maintenance of x-ray equipment be carried out?

Every 3 years

59

What makes up an intraoral film?

1. Plastic envelope
2. Black paper
3. Film
4. Lead foil

60

Vertical bitewings are useful to show?

Periodontal bone levels of posterior teeth
True pockets
Midroot of the uppers to midroot of the lowers

61

Periapical are useful to show:

Decting abscesses
Root morphology before XLA
Endo
Perio status

62

Occlusal are useful for:

Detecting supernumerary teeth
Evaluation of cysts/tumors
To view unerupted teeth

63

Intensifying screens do what?

They reduce the dose of radiation exposure. They also intensify the x-ray photons by producing a larger amount of light photons.

64

OPG is useful for:

Ortho assessment
Assessment of wisdom teeth
Assessment of bone loss
Implant planning
Diagnosing jaw fractures

65

Cephalostat are useful for:

Ortho treatment planning
Monitoring jaw growth
Monitoring treatment progress

66

A fogged films means:

The film was exposed to light before exposure.

67

An elongated image means:

The collimator angle was too shallow - it creates a long image.

68

A foreshortening image means:

The collimator angle was too steep - it creates a squat image

69

A coning fault is:

The collimator angle was not central to the film - part of the image will be missing

70

Blurred image means:

The patient or X-ray tube moved during exposure

71

A transparent image or faint imagine with an overlaying pattern means:

The film was placed the wrong way round. The lead foil pattern may be shown on the film

72

Blank spots on the radiograph means:

The film was splashed with fixer before developing

73

Brown or green stains on the radiograph means:

Inadequate fixing due to old solution being used

74

A crazed pattern on a radiograph means:

The film dried too quickly

75

Cystals on film means:

That the radiograph wasn't washed sufficiently after fixing

76

Where should fixer and developer be stored?

On a low shelf in a cool and dry place

77

What is Ionising Radiation?

X-rays
Electromagnetic wave (short)
Travel in straight lines
They are invisible, cannot be felt or heard

78

List the 3 principles of ALARP/ALARA

F speed film
Shorter exposure time
Rectangular Collimator

79

List roles and responsibilities of the Legal Person

Responsible for all staff to comply with both regulations
Appoint an RPA
Appoint an RPS
Draw up and display set of Local Rules - with help from RPA
Organise 3 yearly checks of x-ray equipment

80

Which organisation has to be notified when using ionising radiation on the dental premises?

Health & Safety Executive

81

Which piece of equipment is used in Direct digital imaging?

Digital Sensor

82

Which piece of equipment is used in Indirect digital imaging?

Phosphor Plate

83

Which intra oral film is the largest?

Anterior Occlusal

84

Where would an extra oral film be positioned?

Outside the patient's mouth

85

Is Developer an alkaline or acidic solution?

Alkaline

86

What is the temperature range of the processing chemicals?

18-22oC

87

What has happened if there was a crazed pattern on a radiograph?

The radiograph has dried too quickly

88

What would cause the loss of a film?

Stuck to the sides of the processing tanks

89

How will a radiograph appear if it has been exposed to light?

Fogged
Foggy
Black

90

Which regulation would the processing solutions be included under?

COSHH
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health

91

What rating is given to a radiograph that has some errors but is still diagnostically acceptable?

2

92

What rating would be given to a radiograph that is unacceptable and a retake would be required?

3

93

In quality assurance scoring what rating is given to a radiograph that has no errors at all and is excellent?

1

94

What is the purpose of a quality assurance programme?

To identify any occurring problems so that they can be addressed to avoid retakes and re -exposure for the patient

95

How would you store dental film?

In a cool, dark, dry place
Always use older date first (rotate stock)
Away from sources of radiation and processing solutions
Not on a window sill - away from direct sunlight
On its narrow side

96

What information would be included when labelling a radiograph?

Patient Name
Date of Birth
Patient ID number
Date
Dentist initials
Type of radiograph
Tooth notation

97

If the temperature of the developer is 22oC how long should the developing time be?

4 minutes

98

If the developer temperature is 20oC, how long should the developing time be?

5 minutes

99

How long should the film be in the fixer solution for?

2 minutes

100

How long is the final rinse/wash?

5-10 minutes in running water