Exchange Surfaces And Breathing Flashcards Preview

A level Biology > Exchange Surfaces And Breathing > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exchange Surfaces And Breathing Deck (20):
1

What is tidal volume

The volume of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each resting breath

2

What is vital capacity

The volume of air that can breathed in when the strongest possible exhalation is followed by the deepest possible intake of breath

3

What is inspiratory reserve volume

The maximum volume of air you can breath in over and above normal inhalation

4

Expiratory reserve volume

The extra amount of air you can force out of your lungs over and above the normal tidal volume of air you breath out

5

What is residual volume

The volume of air that is left in your lungs when you have exhaled as hard as possible

6

What is used to measure the different aspects of lint volume

Spirometer

7

How are exchange surfaces adapted to diffusion

Thickness of membrane
Surface area
Concentration gradient

8

Why is diffusion alone enough to supply the needs of single called organisms

Low metabolic activity
Large surface area to volume ratio

9

What are the key structures of the mammalian gaseous exchange system

Nasal cavity
Trachea
Bronchus
Bronchioles
Alveoli

10

What are the important features of the nasal cavity

Large surface area with good blood supply
Hairy lining
Moist surfaces

11

what is the trachea

the main airway carrying clean, warm, moist air from the nose down to the chest.

12

what is the structure of the trachea

wide tube supported by cartilage which stops the trachea collapsing.
rings are incomplete so food can move easily down the oesophagus behind the trachea

13

what is the function of the goblet cells

secrete mucus onto the lining of the trachea to trap dust and microorganisms that have escaped the nose lining

14

what is the function of ciliated epithileal cells

the cilia beat and move the mucus along with any trapped dirt or microorganisms away from the lungs

15

what are the main adaptations of alveoli

large surface area
thin layers
good blood supply
good ventilation

16

explain inspiration

energy using process
diaphragm contacts
external intercostal muscles contract
ribs move upwards and out
volume in thorax increases and pressure is reduced

17

explain expiration

passive process
diaphragm relax
external intercostal muscles relax
ribs move down and in
pressure in thorax increases and volume decreases

18

what is total lung capacity

the sum of the vital capacity and the residual capacity

19

what is the definition of breathing rate

the number of breaths taken per minute

20

how does gas exchange happen in insects

have small openings along their abdomen known as spiracles.
air enters and leaves through the spiracles.
they can be open or closed by sphincters
leading from the spiracles are tracheae. largest tubes in the insect respiratory system relatively impermeable to gases.
branch into tracheoles. freely permeable. where most of gas exchange takes place.