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Flashcards in Eye & Ear Deck (43)
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1
Q

Name the parts of the eye on the diagram:

  • bottom lid, cornea, iris, pupil, sclera, tear duct, top lid
A
2
Q

What is tonometry?

A

A diagnostic test to assess for an increase in the intraocular pressure, which could indicate glaucoma.

3
Q

What is normal intraocular pressure (IOP)?

A

IOP = 10 to 21 mm Hg

It is higher in the mornings, so document what time it was measured.

4
Q

What are the risk factors for eye and ear problems?

A
  • aging
  • infections
  • medications - some meds cause blurry vision or ototoxicity
  • trauma and tumors
  • diabetes mellitus increases risk for blindness - due to sugar destroying the small vessels
5
Q

What are the safety precautions for a client with a vision problem or eye injury?

A
  • no straining
  • don’t rub the eye
  • fall precautions
6
Q

What is considered perfect vision?

A

20/20 vision

7
Q

How should the nurse speak to a client who can’t see well or is legally blind?

A
  • orient client to the environment by explaining where things are
  • use the “clock method” of describing where foods are on the plate
  • let client hold onto the nurse’s arm when ambulating
  • provide equipment that gives the time orally
8
Q

Describe:

Cataracts

A

An opacity of the lens that distorts what the client sees that can progress to blindness.

9
Q

How do clients with cataracts see?

A
  • blurry vision,
  • double vision (diplopia), and
  • have a harder time seeing color
10
Q

Treatment:

Cataracts

A

Cataracts are surgically removed (one at a time) when the vision interferes with the client’s ability to function normally.

11
Q

Describe:

Glaucoma

A

An increase in intraocular pressure of the eye, which can damage the ocular nerve causing blindness.

It occurs later in life and is hereditary.

12
Q

Describe:

Acute angle-closure glaucoma

(Immediate complication)

A

Sudden eye pain and possible nausea and vomiting, resulting in blindness.

The client will receive antiglaucoma meds to lower the pressure.

13
Q

What classification of medications are contraindicated with acute angle-closure glaucoma?

A

Anticholnergic medications

These meds cause the pressure to increase.

14
Q

What is the most common type of glaucoma?

A

Open-angle glaucoma

Client can get loss of peripheral vision.

15
Q

Interventions:

Glaucoma

A

Focus on lowering the pressure in the eye:

  • give eye drops
    • latanoprost
    • timolol
    • dorzolamide

If meds don’t work, possible surgery to drain fluid.

16
Q

Describe:

Retinal detachment

A

The separation of layers in the eye due to too much fluid or a tumor.

If untreated, blindness can occur.

17
Q

What are the characteristic signs and symptoms of retinal detachment?

A
  • flashes of light
  • floaters
  • blurry vision
  • a sense that curtain is being drawn over the eye
  • painless loss of vision
18
Q

Interventions:

Retinal detachment

A
  • avoid additional pressure on eyes
  • surgery to drain fluid or remove tumor
19
Q

Describe:

Macular degeneration

A

The loss of central vision more common in the elderly caused by leaking blood vessels.

20
Q

Treatment:

Macular degeneration

A

Possible surgery to seal leaking blood vessels.

21
Q

What are the post-op interventions for eye surgery?

A
  • keep bed elevated to 30 - 45 degrees
  • maintain an eye patch
  • position belongings on non-operative side
  • fall precautions
22
Q

Teaching:

Eye surgery

A
  • avoid straining (bending over, constipation, heavy lifting)
  • administer stool softeners
  • don’t rub the eye
  • administer eye drops
  • contact HCP for signs of infection
23
Q

What are the interventions if a client has a penetrating object in the eye such as sharp metal?

(Immediate complication)

A
  • DO NOT remove the object
  • cover the eye with a cup and tape in place
  • no bending, no straining
  • surgery to remove object
24
Q

What is the intervention if a client gets chemicals splashed in the eye?

A

Flush eyes with water for at least 15 to 20 minutes.

25
Q

What is an eye contusion?

A

A “black eye” from the result of an injury.

26
Q

Interventions:

Eye contusion

A
  • apply an ice pack immediately
  • assess vision and refer to an eye doctor
27
Q

Name the parts of the ear on the diagram:

  • outer ear, inner ear, middle ear and pinna.
A
28
Q

What are the 2 functions of the ear?

A

hearing and maintaining balance

29
Q

Which cranial nerve is responsible for hearing and balance?

A

The 8th cranial nerve.

30
Q

What are signs of hearing loss?

A
  • frequently asking others to repeat statements
  • turning or leaning forward to favor one ear
  • shouting
  • raising the volume on the TV
31
Q

What can occur socially with a client that can’t see or hear well?

A

The client may become isolated due to unable to communicate well, causing depression and anxiety.

32
Q

How does the nurse communicate with a client that can’t hear well?

A
  • use a firm volume, calm and low-pitched voice
  • speak slowly with simple words
  • don’t yell or speak in a loud voice
  • stand in front of client and maintain eye contact
  • repeat questions, don’t rephrase questions
  • minimize background noise: turn off TV and close door
  • use a communication board
33
Q

What should never be placed in the ear?

A

Never put cotton-tipped applicators in the ears such as Q-tips.

It can puncture the eardrum.

34
Q

Teaching:

Hearing aids

A
  • put volume at minimum and then adjust the volume up to avoid feedback squealing
  • keep hearing aid dry and don’t get lotions or sprays on it
  • remove battery when not using
  • don’t place on food tray due to risk of getting thrown out
35
Q

Describe:

Otitis media

A

An ear infection typically in the middle ear caused by a blocked eustachian tube.

It is a common complication of a respiratory infection. The treatment is to give antibiotics.

36
Q

Describe:

Meniere’s syndrome

A

An inner ear disorder that can cause vertigo (dizziness), hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).

37
Q

What is the priority intervention for a client with Meniere’s syndrome?

A

Prevent risk of falling due to vertigo.

Don’t drive if symptoms are severe.

38
Q

Define:

Myopia

A

Nearsightedness: the client has trouble seeing objects far away.

39
Q

Define:

Hyperopia

A

Farsightedness: the client has trouble seeing objects close up.

40
Q

Define:

Presbycusis

A

hearing loss

40
Q

Define:

Tinnitus

A

Ringing or other sounds in the ear.

40
Q

What are the risk factors of hearing loss?

A
  • frequent ear infections
  • older age
  • loud noise
  • exposure to smoke
41
Q

Which medications can be given to treat Meniere’s syndrome?

A
  • Antivertigo meds such as meclizine
  • Antiemetics and antianxiety meds are also given if client is showing symptoms