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Flashcards in FA review Deck (32):
1

Operant vs classic conditioning: whats the difference?

-operant conditioning deals with the reinforcement and punishment to change behavior.

2

Operant conditioning: Negative reinforcement: define

reward them by ceasing a punishment.
-ie. mouse presses button to turn off continuous noise.

3

Operant conditioning: extinction: define

Discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates behavior.
-ie. a child who climbs under his desk, a response which has been reinforced by attention, is subsequently ignored until the attention-seeking behavior no longer occurs.

4

immature ego defense: displacement
-define
-example

-transfer of an impulse toward a safer & less
distressful object.
-husband yelling at his dog after argument w/wife.

5

immature ego defense: projection
-define
-example

-Attributing an unacceptable internal impulse to
an external source.
-An imcompetent employee cant face the fact that he's an idiot and blames his boss for being an asshole cuz he's always on his ass.

6

Suppression vs repression
-which one is involuntary (and immature)?

repression

7

Sublimation
-mature or immature
-definition:
-example:

mature
-Replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one’s value system.
-Teenager’s aggression toward his father is redirected to perform well in sports.

8

relationship between DOPAMINE and ACH:

dopamine inhibits ACh.
-Which is why ACh is high in parkinsons and you give anti-ACh (benadryl) with anti-psychotics (which block dopamine so then breaks taken off ACh) - helps prevent dystonia.

9

schizophrenia
-NT change?

dopamine increased

10

Order of loss of orientation

1-time
2-place
3-person

11

Korsakoff amnesia
-cause?
-destruction of which tissue?
-retro or antero?

-anterograde amnesia
-thiamine deficiency
-destruction of mammilary bodies

12

Wernicke Korsakoff
-symptoms? mnemonic?
-cause? pathophys?

confusion, ataxia, nystagmus (CAN of beer)
-alcohol inhibits thiamine absorption in the gut.

13

4 components of cognition:
-mnemonic?

memory, attention, language, judgement.
-LJAM

14

define apraxia

-inability to perform particular purposive actions, as a result of brain damage.

15

define aphasia

loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.

16

what is pseudodementia?

In elderly patients, depression may present like
dementia (pseudodementia).

17

Delirium vs dementia
-which has abnormal EEG?

delerium has abnormal EEG
-dementia has normal EEG.

18

psychosis
-definition
-3 characteristics

-A distorted perception of reality (psychosis) characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and/or
disorganized thinking.

19

Where do you see tactile hallucinations?
-define formication

alcohol and cocaine withdrawal
-formication = sensation of bugs crawling on your skin.

20

Schizophrenia
-Dx criteria:

Diagnosis requires 2 or more of the following (first 4 in this list are “positive symptoms”):
- Delusions
- Hallucinations—often auditory
- Disorganized speech (loose associations)
- Disorganized or catatonic behavior
- “Negative symptoms”—flat affect, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, lack of speech or thought.

21

Schizo
-positive Sxs - which receptor/NT?
-negative Sxs - which receptor/NT?

-positive = too much dopamine
-negative = too little 5HT2 (serotonin)

22

Lifetime prevalence of schizo:

1.5%
-equal among men/women, equal among blacks/whites.

23

Schizoaffective d/o
-criteria:
-2 subtypes:

-at least 2 weeks of stable mood with psychotic symptoms, plus a major depressive, manic, or mixed (both) episode.
-2 subtypes: bipolar or depressive.

24

schizoaffective vs major depression/bipolar w/psychotic features:

-to DX schizoaffective disorder, psychosis must occur in the absence of major mood episodes, but mood episodes have to be present for most of the illness.
-in major depressive or bipolar disorder w/psychotic features, psychotic Sxs only occur during mood episodes.

25

delusional d/o
-criteria: how long does delusion have to last?

> 1 month

26

Manic episode
-episode must last how long?
-at least how many of the DIGFAST?

> 1 week
-3 or more Sxs of DIGFAST

27

Hypomanic episode
-at least how many days?

at least 4 consecutive days.

28

MDD
-how many of the SIGECAPS
-which 2 are mandatory?
-how long must these Sxs last?

-5 or more
-depressed mood or anhedonia must be present
-2 weeks or more

*depressed mood not included in the SIGECAPS but is one of the 2 requisites.

29

dysthymia
-must last how long?

2 years

30

atypical depression
-features:

-mood reactivity
-reversed veg. sxs (weight gain, hypersomnia)
-leaden paralysis (heavy feeling in arms/legs)
-long-standing interpersonal rejection sensitivity

31

Postpartum depression
-incidence rate:
-how long after delivery does it start?
-how long does it usually last?

-10-15%
-w/in 4 weeks of delivery
-lasts 2 weeks to a year +

32

Postpartum psychosis
-incidence rate:
-how long after delivery does it start?
-how long does it usually last?

-0.1 to 0.2%
-w/in 4 weeks of delivery
-days to 4-6 wks