Flashcards in FA review Deck (32):
Operant vs classic conditioning: whats the difference?
-operant conditioning deals with the reinforcement and punishment to change behavior.
Operant conditioning: Negative reinforcement: define
reward them by ceasing a punishment.
-ie. mouse presses button to turn off continuous noise.
Operant conditioning: extinction: define
Discontinuation of reinforcement (positive or negative) eventually eliminates behavior.
-ie. a child who climbs under his desk, a response which has been reinforced by attention, is subsequently ignored until the attention-seeking behavior no longer occurs.
immature ego defense: displacement
-transfer of an impulse toward a safer & less
-husband yelling at his dog after argument w/wife.
immature ego defense: projection
-Attributing an unacceptable internal impulse to
an external source.
-An imcompetent employee cant face the fact that he's an idiot and blames his boss for being an asshole cuz he's always on his ass.
Suppression vs repression
-which one is involuntary (and immature)?
-mature or immature
-Replacing an unacceptable wish with a course of action that is similar to the wish but does not conflict with one’s value system.
-Teenager’s aggression toward his father is redirected to perform well in sports.
relationship between DOPAMINE and ACH:
dopamine inhibits ACh.
-Which is why ACh is high in parkinsons and you give anti-ACh (benadryl) with anti-psychotics (which block dopamine so then breaks taken off ACh) - helps prevent dystonia.
Order of loss of orientation
-destruction of which tissue?
-retro or antero?
-destruction of mammilary bodies
confusion, ataxia, nystagmus (CAN of beer)
-alcohol inhibits thiamine absorption in the gut.
4 components of cognition:
memory, attention, language, judgement.
-inability to perform particular purposive actions, as a result of brain damage.
loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.
what is pseudodementia?
In elderly patients, depression may present like
Delirium vs dementia
-which has abnormal EEG?
delerium has abnormal EEG
-dementia has normal EEG.
-A distorted perception of reality (psychosis) characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and/or
Where do you see tactile hallucinations?
alcohol and cocaine withdrawal
-formication = sensation of bugs crawling on your skin.
Diagnosis requires 2 or more of the following (first 4 in this list are “positive symptoms”):
- Hallucinations—often auditory
- Disorganized speech (loose associations)
- Disorganized or catatonic behavior
- “Negative symptoms”—flat affect, social withdrawal, lack of motivation, lack of speech or thought.
-positive Sxs - which receptor/NT?
-negative Sxs - which receptor/NT?
-positive = too much dopamine
-negative = too little 5HT2 (serotonin)
Lifetime prevalence of schizo:
-equal among men/women, equal among blacks/whites.
-at least 2 weeks of stable mood with psychotic symptoms, plus a major depressive, manic, or mixed (both) episode.
-2 subtypes: bipolar or depressive.
schizoaffective vs major depression/bipolar w/psychotic features:
-to DX schizoaffective disorder, psychosis must occur in the absence of major mood episodes, but mood episodes have to be present for most of the illness.
-in major depressive or bipolar disorder w/psychotic features, psychotic Sxs only occur during mood episodes.
-criteria: how long does delusion have to last?
> 1 month
-episode must last how long?
-at least how many of the DIGFAST?
> 1 week
-3 or more Sxs of DIGFAST
-at least how many days?
at least 4 consecutive days.
-how many of the SIGECAPS
-which 2 are mandatory?
-how long must these Sxs last?
-5 or more
-depressed mood or anhedonia must be present
-2 weeks or more
*depressed mood not included in the SIGECAPS but is one of the 2 requisites.
-must last how long?
-reversed veg. sxs (weight gain, hypersomnia)
-leaden paralysis (heavy feeling in arms/legs)
-long-standing interpersonal rejection sensitivity
-how long after delivery does it start?
-how long does it usually last?
-w/in 4 weeks of delivery
-lasts 2 weeks to a year +