Factors Affecting Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimonies Flashcards Preview

Psychology - Memory > Factors Affecting Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimonies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Factors Affecting Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimonies Deck (15):
1

What is meant by the term eyewitness testimony?

the recollection of an event by a witness. It has been a centrepiece of many convictions of criminals who have onto be innocent.

2

How are memories affected by the schemas we propose?

when we have gaps in our knowledge and memories, our schema fills it with things from our past experience and culture, this distorts the memory and makes it less accurate

3

What piece of research did Bartlett do?

'the war of the ghosts': non native American Indians read out a native american folk tale. P's were asked to tell the story again, a number of times over a period of weeks/months.

4

What ere the findings of Bartlett's study?

over time, P' shortened the story and altered it so it fitted with their schemas (e.g. bow and arrow replaced by gun)

5

What is one key factor affecting EWT accuracy?

- misleading information that distorts and changes memory. This shows how changeable and malleable memory is to events in the environment
- leading questions
- post event discussion

6

Why does misleading information affect the accuracy of EWT

distorts and changes memory.
This shows how changeable and malleable memory is to events in the environment

7

What piece of research did Loftus and Palmer do?

studies the influence of misleading information in both visual and wording on questions.
45 American students were shown 7 films f traffic accidents.
after watching P's were asked to describe what had happened as if they were a witness. They were asked how fast were he cars going when they......?

8

What was the IV of Loftus and Palmer's study?

wording of the question

9

What was the DV of Loftus and Palmer's study?

speed reported

10

What was the findings of Loftus and Palmer's study?

estimated speed was affected by the verb used as it implied the speed which affected the memory of the P
'Smashed' had the fasted speed reported and 'contacted' had the slowest speed reported.

11

What is the positive evaluation of the Loftus and Palmer's study?

- important practical uses for police officers and investigators to avoid inaccurate EWT

12

What is the negative evaluation of the Loftus and Palmer's study?

- used artificial materials
wont have the same emotional connection to the memory as someone who really witnessed a car accident

- individual differences
older people were less accurate than younger, but everyone were more accurate when identifying people of their age

- demand characteristics

13

What is the inverted u hypothesis?

an empirical relationship between arousal (anxiety) and performance. The law dictates that performance increases with physiological or mental arousal (anxiety), but only up to a point.

14

What is the positive evaluation of anxiety and EWT?

- lab experiment
high control

- good real life applications psychologists interviewed people who have already witnesses an event
you can get more out of an EWT accurately

- researcher had no influence in the IV

15

What is the negative evaluation of anxiety and EWT?

- ethical issues
creating anxiety may subject P's to psychological harm

- demand characteristics

- difficult to define and measure as it has lots of components: cognitive, behavioural, emotional and physical, inverted u assumes one is linked to performance