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Flashcards in Family Descriptions Deck (45):
1

Trees or shrubs., aromatic oil glands; leaves evergreen, usually alternate; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; perianth of 6 tepals; stamens 12 in 4 whorls of 3, anthers with valvate dehiscence; carpel 1, ovary superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit a berry or drupe.

LAURACEAE

Laurel Family

2

Trees or shrubs; leaves alternate, deciduous or persistent, stipules deciduous and leaving a stipular ring at each node; flowers solitary, actinomorphic; perianth of 6-many tepals; stamens numerous, laminar; carpels numerous (apocarpous), ovaries superior; fruit an aggregate of follicles, samaras, or berries; seeds often covered with red flesh (sarcotesta), each suspended by a threadlike funiculus. 

MAGNOLIACEAE 

Magnolia Family 

3

Shrubs, herbs, or vines, often of wet habitats; leaves alternate (spiral or distichous) or basal, simple to pinnately or palmately compound; inflorescence a spadix enveloped or subtended by a single spathe; flowers actinomorphoc, perfect or imperfect (monescious); perianth absent (in imperfect flowers) or of 4-6 tepals (in perfect flowers); stamens usually 4,6, or 8; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary usually superior; fruit usually a multiple of berries. 

ARACEAE 

Arum Family

4

Perennial (some annual) aquatic or wetlant herbs with milky sap; leaves basal; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (plants monecious, dioecious or polygamous); calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 6-many; carpels 6-many (apocarpous), ovaries a fruit an aggregate of achenes or follicles. 

ALISMATACEAE 

Water- Plaintain Family

5

Perennial herbs or shrubs; leaves alternate (distichous), unifacial; flowers small to large, generally showy, actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx of 3 petaloid sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 3; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule. 

IRIDACEAE 

Iris Family 

6

Perennial or annual herbs; leaves alternate (spiral or distichous) or whorled, often somewhat leathery; flowers zygomorphic; calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals, median petal (labellum) larger than 2 lateral petals; stamens 1-2, fused to style and stigma (forming a column), pollen grouped in pollinia; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary inferior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a capsule, dehiscent by 3-6 slits. 

ORCHIDACEAE 

Orchid Family 

7

Perennial herbs; leaves basal or cauline, alternate (spiral) or whorled), often sheathing at base; flowers actinomorphic to somewhat zygomorphic; perianth of 6 tepals in 2 whorls; stamens 6; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many; fruit usually a loculicidal capsule, sometimes a berry. 

LILIACEAE 

Lily Family 

8

Perennial herbs, succulent stems often with swollen nodes; leaves alternate (spiral), with closed basal sheath; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic; calyx of 3 sepals; corolla of 3 petals; stamens 6, or 3 with 3 staminodes, filaments often hairy; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit typically a loculicidal capsule

COMMELINACEAE 

Spiderwort Family 

9

Aquatic perennial herbs with round, solid stems; leaves linear, mostly basal, alternate (distichous), sheathing; inflorescence a dense, cylindrical spike; flowers small, unisexual (monescious), actinomorphic; perianth of 0-3 bristle-like tepals in male flowers, many stamens 3; carpel 1; ovary superior, ovule 1 per carpel; fruit achenelike. 

TYPHACEAE 

Cattail Family 

10

Tufted, perennial grass-like herbs, internodes solid; leaves alternate (spiral), mostly basal, usually tristichous, sheathing; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; perianth of 6 tepals; stamens usually 3-6; carpels 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules 1-many per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule.

JUNCACEAE 

Rush Family 

11

Perennial and annual herbs, stems often triangular, internodes solid; leaves alternate (spiral), usually tristichous, sheathing; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (plants usually monecious); perianth absent or occasionally of bristles or scalelike tepals; stamens 3; carpels 2-3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, sometimes enclosed by a sac-like bract (perigynium),  ovules 1 per carpel; fruit an achene. 

CYPERACEAE 

Sedge Family 

12

Annual and perennial herbs, stems round, internodes usually hollow; leaves alternate, sheathing, ligule present; flowers somewhat zygomorphic, perfect or occasionally imperfect (plants usually monecious), subtended by 2 bracts (lemma and palea); perianth of 1-3; carpels 2-3, ovary superior, ovules 1 per ovary; fruit a caryopsis

POACEAE 

Grass Family 

13

Perennial trees, shrubs or herbs, often spiny, leaves alternate and rarely opposite, simple or compound, flowers actinomorphic, perianth 6-7 seriate with 3 parts per whorl, the outer 2 whorls sepaloid, the inner 4-5 petaloid, innermost 2-3 nectiferous, stamens 6, anthers typically valvular,carpel 1, ovary superior, ovules many per ovary, fruit typically a berry

BERBERIDACEAE

Barberry Family 

14

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs, or small trees, leaves alternate to subopposite, usually lobed to divided or dissected, extipulate; flowers actinomorphoc, zygomorphic, or biradial; calyx of 2 or 3 caducous sepals; outer petals with a spur or a sac; stamens numerous, syncarous, ovary superior, fruit usually a capsule 

PAPAVERACEAE 

Poppy Family  

15

Mostly herbs, sometimes shrubs or vines, leaves alternate, simple to compound, with sheathing leaf bases. Flowers usually actinomorphoc and perfect, calys 5-8 petaloid sepals; corolla few-many petals (rarely absent); stamens usually numerous; carpels usually numerous (apocarpous), ovaries superior, ovules usually many per carpel, fruit usually an aggregate of follicles, achenes or berries 

RANUNCULACEAE 

Buttercup Family

16

Trees, exfoliating bark, leaves alternate with infrapetiolar bud, usually palmately lobed, monoecious, fruit a multiple of densly hairy achenes in a globose head. 

PLATANACEAE

Sycamore Family 

17

Annual and perennial herbs, vines, shrubs, and rarely trees, leaves alternate or opposite; flowers actinomorphic, perfect or imperfect (monoecious, dioecious, or polygamous); perianth of typically 3-5 sepals, scarious, stamens usually 3-5, ovary superior, ovules typically 1 per carpel, fruit a nutlet, berry, capsule, or rarely a circumscissle capsule. 

AMARANTHACEAE 

Amaranth Family 

18

Succulent shrubs, or trees, leaves alternate when present, leaf spines arisiing from special axillary meristems called areoles, some also possess small, trichome-like leaves called glochida; flowers actinomorphic; perianth of numerous tepals; stamens numerous, carpels 3-many, ovary inferior, ovules many per carpel; fruit a berry, often spiny or bristly. 

CACTACEAE

Cactus Family 

19

Annual and perennaial herbs, stems with swollen nodes. Leaves usually opposite, exstipulate; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect; calys typically of 5 sepals; corolla typically of 5 petals; stamens usually 5-10; carpels usually 25 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovules many per ovary, usually free-central placentation; fruit usually a many-seeded capsule opening by teeth or valves; seeds with an ornamented seed coat. 

CARYOPHYLLACEAE

Carnation Family 

20

Annual and perennial herbs, shrubs, vines, and trees, stems with swollen nodes, leaves usually alternate, with nodal ocrea; flowers actinomorphic, usually perfect, perianth of typically 3+3 or 5 tepals; stamens usually 3-3 or 8; carpels usually 3 (syncarpous), ovary superior, ovule 1 per ovary; fruita an achene or nutlet' often 3-sided and sometimes subtended by persistant tepals. 

POLYGONACEAE 

Buckwheat Family 

21

Herbs or shrubs, palmately or pinnately compound, or simple, flowers usually actinomorphic, calyx of 5 sepals, stamens usually 10 in whorls, carpels usually 5, ovary superior, ovules usually 2 per carpel; fruit a loculicidal capsule or a schizocarp of mericarps or follicles, usually separating from a persistant beak. 

GERANIACEAE
Geranium Family

22

Herbs and shrubs; leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, hypanthium present, calyx of 4 sepals, corolla of typically 4 petals, syncarpous, ovary inferior, ovules usually many per carpel, fruit a capsule, berry, or nut. 

ONAGRACEAE

Evening- Primrose Family

23

Trifoliate, basal pulvini, filaments often brightly colored, ovary superior, fruit usually a legume

FABACEAE

24

Trees or shrubs, flowers imperfect, males fromers in pendulous catkins, females  in erect catkins, corolla absent,  fruit, nut or 2-winged samara, enclosed in bracts. 

BETULACEAE

25

Trees or shrubs, alternate and actinomorphic, flowers in catkins or heads, pistillate flowers at base of staminate inflorescences, or solitary; ovary inferior; fruit a nut, or at least covered by a cupule of hardened bracts. 

FAGACEAE

26

Herbs, shrubs, trees, or vines; ofter with milky sap; imperfect; cyathium present; ovary superior; fruit a schizocarp, drupe, berry, or samara. 

EUPHORBIACEAE

27

Herbs, shrubs, small trees, or lianas; leaves a basal rosette; zygomorphic, with the anterior one spurred; fruit a berry or loculicidal capsule; rarely a nut. 

VIOLACEAE

28

Herbs, shrubs, or small trees with acrid juice; basal rosettes; ovary superior; fruit a locculicidal capsule or a berry.

OXALIDACEAE

29

Trees, shrubs, and herbs, often with prickles or thorns, hypanthium present; ovariers superior or inferior; fruit a drupe, pome, hip, follicetum, achenecetum, or capsule.

ROSACEAE

30

Herbs with odorous, milky sap; basal rosettes; lobed to divided; 4 cruciate petals; stamens tetradynamous (4 tall, 2 short); fruit a silique or silicle with a persistant septum called a replum. 

BRASSICACEAE

31

Trees herbs or shrubs, often with stellate trichomes; corolla of 5 valvate petals; sometimes fused to the staminal column, united by their filaments; fruit a capsule or a schizocarp of mericarps. 

MALVACEAE

32

Trees, shrubs, and woody vines; trifoliate; dioecious, polygamous, or polygamodioecious); fruit a drupe with typically a resinous mesocarp. 

ANACARDIACEAE

33

Trees and shrubs; leaves opposite, veins curved forward; large petaloid bracts; ovary inferior; fruit usually a drupe

CORNACEAE

34

Small trees and shrubs; mycotropic; evergreem; coriaceous; anthers opening into terminal pores; fruit a loculicidal or septicidal capsule, berry, or drupe

ERICACEAE

35

Annual or perennial herb, shrubs, or small trees; typically 5 fused sepals; 5 fused petals; stamens 5; ovary superior; fruit a capsule. 

POLEMONIACEAE

36

Herbs primarily; exstipulate; inflorescence a scorpoid or helicoid cyme; epipetalous; style gynobasic; fruit a schizocarp of nutlets or a 1-4 seeded drupe

BORAGINACEAE

37

Trees, shrubs, and herbs with milky sap; pollen group in pollinia; syncarpous; fruit a berry, drupe, or follicle. 

APOCYNACEAE 

38

Stamens are fused to the stigma, forming a gynostegium, often with elaborate appendages called horns and hoods; schizocarp of two follicles 

ASCLEPIDOIDS

39

Trees, shrubs and herbs; usually decussate (opposite) , hairy down the throat; epipetalous; loculicidal or septicidal capsule, drupe, or schizocarp

RUBIACEAE

40

Herbs or shrubs with aromatic leaves; square stems; bilabiate (2 above 3 below); verticillaster; epipetalous; gynobasic

LAMIACEAE

41

Shrubs or herbs; opposite; simple to deeply pinnately lobed; stamens 2-4 with 5 or more staminodes; epipetalous; septicidal capsule, berry, or schizocarp

SCROPHULARIACEAE

42

Vines, shrubs, or small trees often with milky sap; 5 fused sepals and 5 fused petals; fruit a 4-valved capsule, berry, drupe, or nut

CONVOLVULACEAE

43

Herbs, shrubs, and trees often with prickles; extipulate; anthers often connivent; fruit a berry or sometimes enclosed by inflated persistant calyx, drupe, or septicidal capsule

SOLANACEAE

44

Herbs mainly; aromatic, often with hollow stem internodes; sheathing bases; compound umbel; ovary inferior; fruit a schizocarp of mericarps; supported by carpophores upon splitting.

APIACEAE

45

Herbs, shrubs, or trees; inflorescences of involucrate heads (capitula) on a common receptacle surrounded by phyllaries; calyx absent or represented by pappus of 2-many awns, scales, or bristles; 5 fused petals (bilabiate, disk, ray, or ligulate); syngenesious; fruit an achene or cypsela

ASTERACEAE