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Flashcards in Family Policy Deck (161):
1

What are the three ways the family is a unit of reproduction

Emotional support
Socialisation
Physical care

2

What did parsons say about understanding families

Family exists for the socialisation of children and emotional and psychological support for adults - especially male workers

The family has become the isolated nuclear family

Different family members have different functions

3

What are Marxist critiques of the functionalist view of the family

The family supports capitalist society
Domestic labour debate - housewife as cheap labour
The family as an oppressive institution

4

What are feminist critique of the functionalist view of the family

Public/private divide - split between the public domains (makes) and the private domain (females)
The 'black box' - hidden nature of the family, cannot make assumptions about what is inside without opening the box and looking inside
Gender and power - the family as a site of unequal gender power relationships

5

What are the two ways the family is an economic unit

Unit of consumption
Unit of production

6

What are the three functions of the family

Reproductive unit
Economic unit
Ideological unit

7

Who states that 'the major significance of the family in Britain today is ideological'. The family is seen as 'naturally give and as socially and morally desirable

Barrett and mcintosh

8

What did Wilmott and Young study and find out

Studied families in east London
Found they still relied heavily on extended families

9

What did Morgan look at in 'family practices

Meanings in family life
Active rather than passive
Nature of family relationships and family negotiations
Family moralities

10

Who said 'family is a facet of social life, not a social institution, it represents a quality rather than a thing'

Morgan

11

Who spoke about the pure relationship

Giddens

12

What is defined as 'a situation where a relationship is entered into for its own sake, for what can be derived by each person from a sustained association with another, and which is continued only in so far as it is thought by both parties to deliver enough satisfaction for each individual to stay within it

The pure relationship

13

What are the three types of love Giddens talked about

Economic love
Romantic love
Confluent love

14

What did Giddens mean by economic love

Marriages were contracted on economic circumstances

15

What did Giddens mean by romantic love

The search for the life time partner, the soul mate

16

How did Giddens describe Confluent love

Active, contingent and democratic

17

How did Smart and Neale criticise the pure relationship

Doesn't deal with the difficulties of separating and moving on
The nuclear family ideal is backed up by very powerful institutional structures
Moving from one partner to another ignores the effect on children
Having children makes relationships more complex on all levels including emotional and financial

18

How did Jamieson criticise the pure relationship

If these changes had really taken place we would have seen a much greater transformation in social divisions and inequalities
Evidence suggests that pure relationships are at best only possible for the lucky few
Pure relationships do not allow for the very messy and asymmetric character of people's real lives

19

What did beck and beck-gernsheim say about relationships

Increasing individualisation
Social fear of risk
Trying to find security in a precarious environment
The search for the right way to live

20

What did beck and beck-gernsheim say about love

Provides us with a sense of personal validity and worth
Depends on an active agent, making choices
Is not justified on formal or traditional lines but on emotional and individual ones
Is founded on itself
Is security
Is a blank that lovers must fill in
Requires consent not force
Is ultimately subjective

21

What did beck and beck-gernsheim say there is instead of stability and security

More changes and uncertainty
Fore fluidity and choice
But potentially more fragile

22

What are the two types of biography beck and beck gernsheim spoke about

Standard biography
Choice biography

23

What did beck and beck gernsheim mean by standard biography

Jobs for life
Marriage
Religion

24

What did beck and beck gernsheim mean by choice biography

Individuals seek to construct their own lives through individual choices

25

How did Smart and Shipman criticise beck and beck-gernsheim

Bleak and pessimistic
Focus on the push and pull factors
Marginalise difference
Monochrome and one dimensional
If you look at qualitative research with families you see that there is considerable diversity

26

What did Gross say about regulative tradition

Involves threats of exclusion from various moral communities
Individual groups such as gays and lesbians have managed to break away from regulative traditions
Regulative traditions are in decline

27

Who spoke about regulative tradition

Gross

28

Who said these things:
Family exists for the socialisation of children and emotional and psychological support for adults - especially male workers
The family has become the isolated nuclear family
Different family members have different functions

Parsons

29

Who studied families in east London and found they still relied heavily on extended families

Wilmott and Young

30

Who spoke about romantic, economic and Confluent love

Giddens

31

Who criticised the pure relationship

Jamieson
Smart and Neale

32

Who spoke about standard and choice biography

Beck and Beck gernsheim

33

Who said this about love
Provides us with a sense of personal validity and worth
Depends on an active agent, making choices
Is not justified on formal or traditional lines but on emotional and individual ones
Is founded on itself
Is security
Is a blank that lovers must fill in
Requires consent not force
Is ultimately subjective

Beck and beck gernsheim

34

Who said this about relationships
Increasing individualisation
Social fear of risk
Trying to find security in a precarious environment
The search for the right way to live

Beck and Beck-Gernsheim

35

Who spoke about meaning constitutive tradition

Gross

36

What did gross say about meaning constitutive tradition

Ways of being that are passed down through generations
- eg language and cultural traditions
We are embedded in culture and history
Therefore traditions still remain of central importance in contemporary societies

37

What did Giddens say about children

Seem to get in the way of a pure relationship and the ending of one

38

Who said children seem to get in the way of a pure relationship and the ending of one

Giddens

39

What did beck and beck-gernsheim say about children

Love for a child can be 'a tie which is more elemental, profound and durable than any other in this society'

40

Who said love for a child can be 'a tie which is more elemental, profound and durable than any other in this society'

Beck and Beck-Gernsheim

41

What is self biography

You are active in shaping your life

42

Who criticises individualisation thesis

Smart

43

How did Smart criticise individualisation thesis

The notion of a personal life captures the social as well as the individual
Personal life is embedded in the social, legal, economic etc
The notions of personal lives recognises the 'meaning constitutive traditions'

44

What did smart say about personal life

It is not bounded, there is space for families but also friends
It is not static/stationary, as the family can appear to be
It has no boundaries

45

Who said this about personal life:
It is not bounded, there is space for families but also friends
It is not static/stationary, as the family can appear to be
It has no boundaries

Smart

46

What did Smart say about sociology of personal lives

It can capture and recognise aspects of life often treated as subfields
It breaks away from white middle-class heterosexual notions of family

47

Who said this about sociology of personal lives:
It can capture and recognise aspects of life often treated as subfields
It breaks away from white middle-class heterosexual notions of family

Smart

48

Who spoke about the contributions of friendship to social life

Allan

49

What did Allan say the contributions of friendship are to social life

Sociability
Practical support
Emotional support
Conformation of identity

50

Who said the contributions of friendship to social life are:
Sociability
Practical support
Emotional support
Conformation of identity

Allan

51

Who spoke about categories of friendship

Pahl

52

Why did Pahl say the four categories of friendship are

Firefighter friend
Champagne friend
Heartsinking friend
Fossil friend

53

What is a firefighter friend

Called on only in an emotional crisis

54

What is a champagne friend

Just for fun

55

What is a heartsinking friend

Someone you don't really want to spend time with

56

What is a fossil friend

Someone dropped out but easily reactivated

57

What did Pahl say the two distinct processes that were occurring on terms of friendship are

Friendships on the rise
Our expectations are changing

58

Want are benefits of virtual friendship and Internet communication

Anonymity allows for greater self disclosure with strangers
Relationships are not initially hampered by other social factors
It is easy to find like or similar others
The Internet can be helpful for those who have difficulty forging relationships

59

What percentage of people lived alone in 1953

3%

60

What percentage of households in London and Paris were single by 1990

40% in London
50% in Paris

61

What was the growth figures single person households between 1991 and 2011

2.2 million to 4.4 million

62

How much did the percentage of 16-59 year olds living alone increase by from 1971-2002

Trebled from 5% to 16%

63

What makes up 1/3 of all households in Britain

Solo living

64

Is solo living more common amount older or younger people

Older people

65

What percentage of women aged 30-39 live alone

46%

66

Who spoke about individualisation

Beck and Beck-Gernsheim

67

What did beck and beck-gernsheim say about individualisation

Most of the traditional divisions, certainties and relations that characterised the first modernity have now been dissolved
No longer a job for life
Women are not expected to stay at home
Meaning of marriage has changed completely
We negotiate our way through life as individuals not a collective
Active role in making a life for oneself
Easy to retreat from the risks of marriage and family

68

Who spoke about families of choice

Weeks

69

What did Weeks say about families of choice

Flexible, supportive network of friends, lovers, even members of family of origin
The family of choice is as real as a family of origin
The idea of a chosen family is a very powerful and symbolic one

70

What did the CAVA conclude about friendship

Friendships very important
Consciously trying to create a way of life which met their needs for connection with others
Placed a high value in the way friends cared and supported without infringing on personal boundaries or risk of deep emotional relationships

71

Who spoke about what has not changed about friendships

Jamieson

72

What did Jamieson say has not changed about friendships

Still strong gender patterning of friendships
Gender segregated patterns firmly established in childhood
Men tend to have friendships with men and women with women but not the other way around
Strong heterosexual assumptions about men and women mean it is still hard to cross gendered relationships

73

On average how many friends do people make and lose in a lifetime

396 made over a lifetime but 363 lost - have 33

74

What did Munice say about family policy

The represents ways in which 'stereotypes, norms and ideals of family life have organised political rhetoric and policy making'

75

Who said family policy represents ways in which 'stereotypes, norms and ideals of family life have organised political rhetoric and policy making'

Muncie

76

What percentage of children were born outside of marriage in the early/mid 70s

8%

77

What percentage of children were born outside of marriage in the late 2000s

46%

78

What percentage of single women were cohabiting in 1979

8%

79

What percentage of single women were cohabiting late 2000s

26%

80

What was the median age of a first marriage in the mid/late 1970s

21/24

81

What was the median age of a first marriage in the late 2000s

30/32

82

What was the number of abortions from women aged 15-44 in the early/mid 1970s

161000

83

What was the number of abortions from women aged 15-44 in the late 2000s

215903

84

What was the fertility rate in the early/mid 1970s

84

85

What was the fertility rate in the late 2000s

64

86

What was the divorce rate in the mid/late 1970s

5.9

87

What was the divorce rate in the late 2000s

11.9

88

What percentage of the population was under 16 in the mid/late 1970s

13

89

What percentage of the population was over 65 in the mid/late 1970s

13

90

What percentage of the population was under 16 in the late 2000s

19

91

What percentage of the population was over 65 in the late 2000s

16

92

What are the 3 areas of family policy outlined by Millar and Haux

The legal regulation of family behaviour
Policies to support family income
The provision of services for families

93

What are 4 categories of family policy schemes

Pro-family/pro-natalist
Pro-traditionalist
Pro-egalitarian
Pro-family but non-interventionist

94

What does being Pro-family/pro-natalist mean

Maintain birth rate through policies to help mothers reconcile work and family life

95

What is an example of a country that uses Pro-family/pro-natalist policies

France

96

What does a country using pro-traditional policies mean

Preserve the family through self and community support
Policies support women to stay at home

97

What is an example of a country that uses pro traditional policies

Germany

98

What does a country using pro-egalitarian policies mean

Promotion of gender equality in home/labour market
Policies to support dual worker/career roles

99

What is an example of a country that uses pro-egalitarian policies

Sweden
Denmark

100

What does a country using pro-family but non-interventionist policies mean

Support is targeted only at those in need, limited support for working parents

101

What is an example of a country that uses pro-family but non-interventionist policies

U.K.
USA

102

What were three things outlined by new labour

Children must come first
Children need stability
Families raise children

103

What 5 areas did Millar and Ridge speak about to support families

Better financial support for families
Helping families balance work and home
Better service and support for parents
Strengthen marriage
Better support for serious problems

104

How did Millar and Ridge suggest providing better financial support for families

Higher child benefits
New tax credits for poor working families
The new deal for lone parents
Education maintenance allowance pilots
Reform of child support

105

What did Millar and Ridge suggest to help families balance work and home

Setting framework of family friendly employee rights
Promoting family friendly employment practices
National childcare strategy

106

How did Millar and Ridge suggest providing better services and support for parents

National family and parenting institute
National parenting helpline and other advice services
Enhanced role for health visitors
The sure start programme

107

What did Millar and Ridge suggest to strengthen marriages

Measures to strengthen the institution of marriage
Counselling and support for all families

108

What did Millar and Ridge suggest to provide better support for serious family problems

Reduce school truancy, exclusions and under-performance
Reduce youth offending
Reduce teenage pregnancy
Reduce domestic violence

109

What vital changes did civil registration introduce

Baby naming
Unmarried fathers parental rights
Choice in marriage settings
Death registration - life partners and still births

110

What two types of changes did Finch talk about

Facilitative
Persuasive

111

Who spoke about persuasive and facilitative changes

Finch

112

What did finch mean by facilitative changes

There are elements in the changes which are facilitative of more diverse patterns of partnering and parenting

113

What did finch mean by persuasive changes

Consistent with changes in family policies moving away from basing family policy on what is to a focus on what ought to be

114

What are 6 key policy areas focused on by new labour from 1997-2010

Early education and childcare
Financial support for families with children
Services for young children
Employment activation
Work family reconciliation
Parental responsibility and behaviour

115

How did new labour suggest improving early education and childcare

Expansion of child care and early years services as part of national childcare strategy

116

How did new labour suggest improving financial support for families with children

Introduction of tax credits and increased financial support for families with children

117

How did new labour suggest improving services for young children and their families

Introduction of sure start

118

How did new labour suggest improving employment activation

New deal for lone parents and welfare-to-work reform

119

How did new labour suggest improving work-family reconciliation

Extension of maternity leave, introduction of paternity leave, right to request flexible working

120

How did new labour suggest improving parental responsibility and behaviour

Greater intervention in family life eg parenting classes

121

Who spoke about 4 key themes underpinning policy

Williams

122

What 4 key themes underpinning policy did William's speak about

Focus on 'hard working' families supporting employment
Social investment policies - focus on investing in children as citizens of the future
Focus on parenting and parental responsibilities
Acknowledgement of diversity in family life

123

What were effects of the 2010 budget and spending review

Major cuts in welfare provisions and public sector services
Social security reductions and changes
Families with children particularly affected - especially new families, low-income working families and large families
Loss of legal aid in family law cases

124

What 3 areas did the 2014 children and families act look at

Protection for vulnerable children
Work-life balance policies
Family justice system

125

How did the 2014 children and families actin crease protection for vulnerable children

Encouraging more and faster adoptions
Supporting children in care
New system to help children with special education needs and disabilities

126

What work life balance policies did the 2014 children and families act introduce

Shared parental leave
Time off for ante natal care
Extended right to request flexible working to all employees

127

How did the 2014 children and families act improve the family justice system

Encouraging mediation to avoid cases going to court
Encouraging involvement of both parents after separation

128

What are 4 current conservative policies affecting families

Increase of free childcare hours for 3&4 year olds from 15 hours to 30 hours
New living wage
Welfare system reform
Commitment to eradicate child poverty by 2020 scrapped and re-defined

129

When was the increase of free childcare hours for 3&4 year olds from 15 hours to 30 hours introduced

September 2017

130

What is the new living wage and when was it introduced

£7.20 per hour for over 25s
Introduced April 2016

131

When was the civil partnership act introduced

2004

132

What are reforms affecting the nuclear family

NHS family planning act 1967
Abortion act 1967
Divorce reform act 1969
Matrimonial property act 1970
Matrimonial cause act 1973

133

What year was the divorce reform act

1969

134

After the 1969 divorce reform act under what circumstances could people divorce

After adultery
After unreasonable behaviour
Separation for 2 years with consent
Separation for 5 years without consent

135

When was the matrimonial and family proceedings act introduced

1984

136

What did the matrimonial and family proceedings act do

Allowed to file for divorce after one year of marriage

137

What reasons did Dormor give for the rise in divorce rates

Removal of legal, economic and social barriers
Social and structural changes
Changing values and expectations
Circumstances of marriage

138

What did Elliot say the consequence of divorce are

Breaks intimate relations
Disrupts parental relations
Disrupts social networks
Financial disruptions
Status change

139

Who spoke about the consequences of divorce

Elliot

140

Who spoke about reasons for rising divorce rates

Dormor

141

What percentage of marriages end in divorce

42%

142

By what time do half of divorces occur

In the first 10 years

143

What percentage of marriages reach their 20th anniversary

60%

144

How long is the average marriage expected to last

32 years

145

What do Beaujouan and Bhrolchain say about cohabitation

More cohabiting couples are separating without marrying
Fewer marry than 20 years ago
Remains a relatively short term type of relationship
At the tenth anniversary of moving in together:
- half of them have married
- just under 4/10 have separated
- slightly over 1/10 are still cohabiting

146

What does the marriage transferable tax allowance do

'To recognise marriage and civil partnerships through the income tax system'
Tax break will be worth up to £200 a year
Cohabiters excluded regardless of length of partnership
Designed to help those on low and middle income, but this has been questioned

147

Who states that marriage is still valued

De Waal

148

According to De Waal what percentage of young people would like to get married

70%

149

What 3 family models did Millar and Warman say obligations are placed on

Nuclear family
Individual
Extended family

150

In what countries are obligations placed on the individual

Denmark
Finland
Norway
Sweden

151

In what countries are obligations placed on the extended family

Portugal
Spain
Italy
Greece

152

In what countries are obligations placed on the nuclear family

UK
France
Germany
Belgium

153

What did Thevenon say the six main aims of family support policies in Europe are

Poverty reduction and income maintenance
Direct compensation for the economic cost of children
Fostering employment
Improving gender equity
Support for early childhood development
Raising birth rates

154

What 5 money allocation systems did vogler and Pahl speak about

Whole wage
Shared allowance
Shared management - common pool
Shared management - partial pool
Independent management

155

What reasons did Burgoyne and Morison give for independent management

Convenience
Avoids complications
Avoids conflict
Autonomy and independence
Hedging bets
Inheritance

156

What 5 money allocation systems did vogler and Pahl speak about

Whole wage
Shared allowance
Shared management - common pool
Shared management - partial pool
Independent management

157

What reasons did Burgoyne and Morison give for independent management

Convenience
Avoids complications
Avoids conflict
Autonomy and independence
Hedging bets
Inheritance

158

What did Milar and Warman say about family obligations

What people believe is the right thing to do in a particular situation
What they do when faced with choices
What the law says they must do

159

What did Finch and Mason say about family obligations

No clear consensus on normative views
The amount people actually do is pretty high
Cannot predict who will do what
A process of negotiation over time
In practice women do more

160

What did Lewis say about the breadwinner model

Has only ever represented a proportion of families
Working class families in particular have often had to be engaged in paid employment

Now financial interdependence

161

What did Creighton say about the male breadwinner model

Sexual division of labour
Economic support for families
Distribution of time between home and workplace
Regulation of marriage and parenthood
Decline in model