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Flashcards in Farm animal Deck (26)
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Name the Leptospira serovars that affect the urinary tract in cattle

- Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo-bovis
- Leptospira interrogans serovar harjo-prajitno


Describe the clinical signs of chronic leptospirosis in cattle

- Reproductive signs
- Abort in late stage, 12 weeks after infection
- Reduced fertility


Describe the clinical signs of acute leptospirosis in cattle

- Rare, not often seen
- Often sub-clinical
- Flabby bag: sudden milk drop, pyrexia, milk has very high cell count
- abort after infection


What are the risk factors for leptospirosis in cattle?

- Open herds
- Shared bulls (venereal spread)
- Shared watercourses
- Sheep (shed lepto in low numbers, low risk)


Describe the transmission of leptospirosis in cattle

- Shed in urine
- Increased shedding when fresh grazing (pH of urine)
- Absorbed across MM


How is lepto diagnosed in cattle?

- ELISA: monitoring, bulk milk ELISA available
- Microscopic agglutination test for suspected acute cases


Outline the treatment and prevention of lepto in cattle

- Vaccine: limits shedding, improves fertility at herd level, protects staff
- Treatment: rarely needed, supportive and antibiotics (penstrep, oxytet) in acute cases
- Prevention: biosecurity, reduce risk factors e.g. bulls, vaccinate


What is a key differential for methaemoglobinaemia in cattle?

Nitrate poisoning, also causes brown MM


List the differentials for haemturia/pigmenturia in cattle

- Babesiosis
- Bacillary haemoglobinuria (clostridium haemolyticum)
- Periparturient haemoglobinuria
- Acute bracken poisoning
- Copper toxicity
- Kale poisoning
- Enzootic haematuria
- Pyelonephritis
- Urinary calculi
- Other tumours


List the differentials for pyuria in cattle

- Cystitis
- Pyelonephritis
- Repro tract origin e.g. endometritis, vaginitis


Describe the diagnosis of pyelonephritis in cattle

- Vaginal exam to rule out repro cause
- Catheterisation for urine sample
- Ultrasonography: pus in rule out cystitis, repro cause
- Biochem to determine if kidney affected (creatinine looked at, not urea in ruminants)
- Pyrexia
- Painful, swollen kidney on rectal exam


Describe the treatment of pyelonephritis in cattle and name the most common causative pathogen

- Penicillin or amoxicillin
- Long duration - 10 days
- Consider pen+strep to cover for G-ve
- Most common pathogen is Corynebacerium renale


List the differentials for a cow that is losing weigh, no diarrhoea, clinical exam NAD

- Johne's (but would expected diarrhoea)
- Protein losing nephropathy (rare in cattle)


Compare the site, nature and animals affected by uroliths in cattle and sheep

Cattle: distal sigmoid flexure, single large stones, usually feed lot calves

Sheep: vermiform appendage, mutliple small stones/grit, usually pet ruminants on small holdings or pedigree male replacements


List the differentials for abdominal discomfort and straining and sheep and cattle

- GIT: scour, rectal/anal trauma, rectal/anal obstruction, constipation
- UG tract: calving, cystitis, obstruction (traumatic, neoplastic, urolithiasis)


List the major abdomial organ systems/pathologies that may be associated with abdominal discomfort and distension in ruminants

- Ruminal
- Abomasal
- Intestinal
- Uterine
- Hepatic/ascites
- Urinary


List the major differentials for abdominal oedema in ruminants

- Trauma/haematoma
- Hypoproteinaemia
- Urethral rupture


List the diagnostic techniques/findings that may be used to investigate suspected urolithiasis in ruminants

- Physical examination
- Abdominal ultrasonography
- Blood biochem
- Abdominal paracentesis


Describe the typical findings expected with urolithiasis in a ruminant

- Blood clots and crystals on preputial hairs, urethra may pulsate on palpation
- Enlarged kidneys/hydronephrosis
- Enlarged bladder
- Location of kidneys
- Uroperitoneum


Describe the typical findings expected with renal failure/obstruction/bladder rupture in a ruminant

- HypoNa
- HypoCl
- HyperPhos
- Azotaemia and hyperK variable


Outline the medical managment of urolithiasis

- Surgical required, medical rarely sufficient
- Fluids: 0.9% saline
- Antibiotics: penicillin
- NSAIDs with care
- Sedation: xylazine


List the surgical techniques for the management of urolithiasis in ruminants

- Amputation of vermiform appendage in sheep
- Perineal urethrostomy
- Tube cystotomy


Describe amputation of the vermiform appendage for the treatment of urolithiasis in sheep
(describe anaesthesia, pros, cons, post-op care, implications)

- lumbosacral epidural _ diazepam

- Quick, easy, cheap
- works in 50% of cases

- Doesn't work in 50% of cases
- Sheep and goats only
- Temporary haemospermia
- Decreased fertility for 14 days

Post op
- Sexual rest 14 days
- Monitor recurrence (common)
- ABs and NSAIDs

- Prognosis reasonable for 50% where it works
- Recurrence likely


Describe perineal urethrostomy for the treatment of urolithiasis in sheep
(describe anaesthesia, pros, cons, post-op care, prognosis)

- Epidural
- Or sedation + local
- Or GA

- Traditional method
- Fairly easy

- Stricture of stoma or recurrence of obstruction
- Loss of breeding ability
- Urine burn of skin

Post op
- Monitor for recurrence (common)
- AB and NSAID
- Treat urine burns

- Recurrence likely
- Stricture of stoma


Describe tube cystostomy for the treatment of urolithiasis in sheep
(describe anaesthesia, pros, cons, post-op care, implications)

- Epidural
- Or sedation + local
- Or GA

- Good success rates in small ruminants
- Maintains breeding potential

- Relies on passive clearing of calculi
- Post op hospitalisation essential to monitor

Post op
- Buster collar
- Hospitalise to monitor patency of urethra
- Removal of catheter

- Generally good if blockage clears post-op


Discuss the prevention of urolithiasis in ruminants

- No more than 0.6% P or Mg in ration
- Ca:P ratio at least 2-2.5:1
Care with bran, linseed cake, skim milk powder, brewers grains
- Do not feed ewe nuts to rams
- Add calcium to restore ratio (care - may lead to CaCO3 stones)
- Add salt (up to 3-5% DMI as NaCl) to increase diuresis
- Keep pH below 6.5
- Feed frequently rather than once/twice a day
- Include roughage and reduce pelleting to increase rumination and salivation to increase faecal excretion of phos rather than urinary