Fat Soluble Vitamins Flashcards Preview

GI > Fat Soluble Vitamins > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fat Soluble Vitamins Deck (23)
Loading flashcards...
1

SOurces of Vitamin A

Animals --> retinyl ester
Plants --> beta carotene
- Final product is retinoic acid

2

Different in structure of the various vitamin A forms

Retinol - alcohol at end of tail
Retinal - aldehyde at end
Retinoic acid - carboxylic acid on end
Reta-carotene - two retinal esters joined together

3

Function of Vitamin A

Vision, skin, immunity, antiioxidant

4

Function of each type of vitamin A

RetinOl - repro
Retinal - vision
Retinoic acid - cell differentiation, growth, and embryo development
Beta-carotene - antioxidant

5

Pharmacological use of retinoids

13-cis Retinoic acid (acutane)
Retinoic acid (promyelocytic anemia)

6

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency

Night blindness
Blindness
Keratinization - dry rough scaly skin
Impaired immunity

7

Vitamin A toxicity

Birth defects due to Retinoic acid analogs for acne or psoriasis

8

Symptoms of beta carotene excess

Yellowing of the skin, no other issues.

9

Vitamin D sources

Sun light
Fish
Mushrooms

10

FUnctions of vitamin D

Increased calcium reabsorption
Bone health
BP regulation (zachow)

11

VItamin D deficiency

Rickets in children
Osteoporosis

12

Rickets

Not enough vitamin D
Growth retardation with misshaped bones and law muscles and muscle spasms.

13

Osteoporosis/osteomalacia

Affects adults who don't get enough vitamin D
Occurs from chronic kidney disease
Causes soft, flexible, brittle, and deformed bones
Pain in pelvis, lower back, and legs

14

Vitamin D toxicities

Only occurs from supplementation. Can have calcification so nice tissues such as blood vessels, heart, kidney, lung, and around joints.

15

Vitamin E real name

Tocopherol

16

Sources of vitamin E

Nuts and oils

17

Function of vitamin E

Lipid soluble antioxidant
- protection of polyunsaturated fatty acids within cell membrane from peroxidation
- inhibition of platelet aggregation and monocytes adhesion.
- assisting in maintenance of fertility.

18

Vitamin E toxicity

It can interfere with Vitamin K formation at very high doses.
Can also cause nerve damage

19

Vitamin K real name

Menaquinones
Phylloquinones

20

SOurces of vitamin K

Menaquinones- Synthesized in the gut
Fish oils and meats

Phylloquinones - green leafy veggies

21

Function of Vitamin K

Blood clotting
(Bone mineralization + required cofactor for enzymes involved in post translational carboxylation of glutamates)

22

Vitamin K deficiency

Newborn infants receive a vitamin K shot at biatch because of a sterile intestinal tract.
- hemorrhaging, bruisability mucosal bleeding

23

How do we digest and absurd fat soluble vitamins

1). Vitamins bound to proteins are released in the stomach
2) in the SI, fat soluble vitamins form micelles and with bile salts.
3) They ended the intestinal enterocytes where they are packaged into chylomicrons and released into the lymphatic system
4) Once in the lymphatic system they travel up the thoracic duct and enter the left subclavian vein to enter into blood circulation.