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Flashcards in Fellowship Exam Deck (62):
1

What are the second line TB drugs?

Fluroquinolones and injectibles

Fluoroquinolones - Levofloxacin, Moxifloxacin, Ofloxacin

Injectibles - Kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, streptomycin

2

Oxidase and catalse rxns for Acinetobacter

Oxidase negative, catalase positive

3

What is the organism, vector, and animal reservoir for erlichiosis?

Erlichia chaffeensis, Amblyomma americanum (lone star tick), dogs and white tailed deer

4

Anaplasma reservoir?

Dogs, cats, sheep, cattle, goats

5

Erlichia vector?

lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum)

6

What are the first line TB drugs?

"RIPE" - Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol

7

Oxidase and catalse rxns for Psedudomonas aeruginosa

Oxidase positive, catalase positive

8

Oxidase and catalase rxns for Stenotrophomonas

Oxidase negative, catalase positive

9

Francisella rule out and refer procedures?

(Gram stain and plate growth, biochemicals)

GNCB, grows poorly on SB (needs cystine-BCYE), tiny colonies on CHOC (48hrs), NG on MAC

Oxidase (NEG), Catalase (Weak POS), Urease (NEG)

10

What are the differences between epidemic typhus and endemic typhus?

Epidemic typhus - Rikettsia prowazekii, tranmistted by lice (pediculus humanus), rash goes from trunk to extremities

Endemic typhus - Rikettsia typhi, tranmitted by rat flea, less severe rash?

11

Filarial nematodes with sheaths?

Wuchereria bancrofti

Brugia malayi

Loa loa

12

Which fungi have resitance or elevated MICs to echinocandins?

Candida parapsilosis (high MICs)

13

Brucella rule out and refer procedures?

(Gram satin and plate growth, biochemicals)

Fastidious GNCB, grows slowly on SB, CHOC, MAC (48-72hrs), nonhemolytic

Oxidase (POS), Urease (POS), Motility (NEG)

14

Causative agent of elephantiasis?

Brugia malayi

Wuchereria bancrofti

15

Best drugs for treatmtn of M. chelonae?

Amikacin, clarithromycin, liezolid

16

What organism causes esosinphilia and seizures?

Tenia soluim (neurocysticercosis)

17

What is the organism, vector, and animal reservoir for Verruga Peruana?

bartonella bacilliformis, sand fly, likely rodents

18

Erlichia reservoir?

White tailed deer

19

Orangisms with intrinsic vancomycin resistance?

Pediococcus

Wiesella

Erysipelothrix

Enteroccous casselflavus and gallinarum

Lactobacillus

Leuconstoc

(C. innocuum)

 

20

Best drugs for treatment of M. abscessus?

Amikacin, clarithromycin

21

Name all the herpes virues and dieseses they cause

CMV - Congenital infection, pnemonitis, espohagitis, colitis, retitnitis in immunosuppresed patients, mono-like syndrome in healthy adults

EBV - Mono, EBV-associated lymphoma

HSV1 - vesicular lesions (cold sores)

HSV2 - vesicular lesions (genital sores)

VZV - varicella (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles)

HHV6 - Roseola

HHV7 - Roseola

HHV8 - Kaposi's sarcoma

22

Diseases that are immediately reportable (in MD)?

Anthrax

Arboviral infections (CHIKV, Dengue, WEE, EEE, WNV, Zika)

Brucella

Cholera

Diptheria

E. coli O157H7

Glanders (B. mallei)

Acute Hep A

Legionella

Measels

Meliodosis (B. pseudomallei)

Plague

Q fever

Rabies

SARS

STEC

Smallpox

TB

Tuleremia

Typhoid fever (S. typhi)

23

Gram negatives that are Oxidase negative (rather than positive)

Enterobacteriaceae (EXCEPT Plesiomonas)

Acintobacter

Stenotrophomonas

Bartonella

Francisella

Burkholderia gladiolii

Bordetella parapertussis

Bordetella holmseii

Pseudomonas luteola

Pseusdomonas oryzihabitans

Aggrigatibacter

Capnocytophaga (human)

24

What virus is associated with anemia?

Parvovirus B19, also causes "slapped cheek" rash

25

What is the organism, vector, and animal reservoir for epidemic relapsing fever?

Borrelia resurrentis, lice, humans

26

Pasmodium species and their defining characteristics

P. falciparum - 36hr fever, ring forms only, multipy infected, applique, banana gametocytes, and RBC infected

P. ovale - 48 hr fever, young (big) RBCs infected, Schuffner's dots, all stages, 8-12 schizonts, fimbriated edges, liver stage hypnozoties

P. vivax - 48 hr fever, young (big) RBCs infected, Schuffner's dots, all stages, 12-24 schizonts, liver stage hypnozoties

P. malairae - 72 hr fever, old (small ) RBCs infected, band forms, daisy head 6-12 schizonts

P. knowelsei - 24 hr fever, looks life falcip early (rings, multiply infected), looks like malariae late (band forms)

27

What is the organism, vector, and animal reservoir for trench fever?

Bartonella quintana, fleas (lice per CDC), humans

28

Operculated Eggs (species)

Opisthorchis

Clonorchis

Diphyllobothirium latum

Paragonimus

Fasciola

Fasciolopsis

29

what organism causes white piedra?

Trichosporon species

30

What is the difference in rashes seen for RMSF and epidemic typhus?

RMSF = Rikettsia rikettsiae, rash from extremities to trunk, covers soles, palms, and face

Epidemic typhus = Rikettsia prowazeckii, rash from trunk to extermities, spares plams, soles, and face

31

Oxidase and catalase rxns for Alcalcigenes faecalis

Oxidase positive, catalase postive

32

Non-molecular methods to identify C. trachomatis

Direct DFA

Culture on McCoy cells, followed by DFA

33

What organisms causes tinea versicolor?

Malassezia species (furfur)

34

Q image thumb

Clonorchis

(shouldered operculum and abopercular knob on bottom end)

35

36

Q image thumb

Paragonimus westermani

37

Gram negatives that are Catalse negative (rather than positive)

Bartonella

Capnocytophaga

Streptobacillus

H-CEKs

38

Filarial nematodes with no sheath and nuclei in the tails? How to tell them apart?

Masonella

M. perstans (blunt tail)

M. streptocerca (crooked/curved tail)

39

Q image thumb

Trichinella spirallis

40

Pasturella mutocida

(gram stain, agar growth, biochemicals)

GNCB, mucoid cols on SB and CHOC, NG on MAC, associated with dog and cat bites

Glucose fermenter, NLF

"COIN" - Catalse +, Oxidase +, Indole +, Nitrate +

41

What organism causes black piedra?

Piedraia hortae (causes fungla infection of the hair and scalp)

42

What is the principle of molecular detection of GC/CT?

Target caprute of RNA (CT) or DNA (gonn) with a specific DNA probe

Then TMA to convert RNA to DNA template, RNA pol then makes many more copies of RNA

Newly sythesized RNA then re-enters the TMA process and gets amplified again

Gnerates MANY copies, is more senstive, is isothermic

43

Anaplasma vector?

Ixodes ticks

44

Q image thumb

Fasciola/Faciolopsis

45

What diseases are caused by Archanobacterium hemolyticum?

Pharyngitis, and soft tissue infections

46

How can you distingusih Staphyloccus saprophyticus from S. epidermidis?

S. saorphyticus is Novibiocin resistant

47

Which fungi have primary resistance or evelvated MICs to azoles?

Candida krusei

Candida glabrata (high MICs)

48

Aspergillus species

(colony morph and LCB morphology)

A. fumigatus - blue green col, uniserate philades on upper 2/3 of vesicle (good hair day)

A. niger - black col, large vesicle, biserate phialades all around vesicle

A. flavus - yellow/green col, rough/spiny conidiophore, uni and biserate phialdes cover entire vesicle (bad hair day)

A. terreus - cinnamon brown col, biserate and compact phialades on upper 1/2 of vesicle

 

49

Burkholderia mallei rule out and refer procedures

(Gram stain and plate growth, biochemicals)

GNR slightly curved maybe CB irragularly arranged, grey cols at 24-48 hrs on SB, NG or small clear/light pink cols on MAC

Oxidase (NEG or Variable), TSI (No RXN), Motiliy (NEG)

50

Q image thumb

Erlichia/Anaplasma

51

Organisms of the normal GU flora

Lactobacillus

Yeast

Anaerobes

Alpha strep

CoNS

Diptheroids

Neisseria (not gonoccous)

52

Three Hemophilus species and their characteristics?

H. influnezae - GNCB, requires factors X (hemin) and V (NAD) to grow, gowth on CHOC only, Catalase +, Oxidase +, mouse-like odor

H. parainfluenzae - GNCB, requires only factor V (NAD) to grow, Catalse +, Oxidase +

H. hemolyticus - GNCB, requires factors X and V to grow, beta-hemolytic 

53

Features of Gemella

Gram positive cocci in pairs and chains, PYR pos, bile esculin negative, NaCl neg

54

Diseases that are notifiable within one day (in MD)?

Babesia

Campy

Chlamydia/Gonnococcus

Cocci

CJD

Cryptosporidium/Cyclospora

Ananplasma/Erlichia

Giardia

HUS

Hep viriuses (not acute HepA)

Leprosy

Lyme

Malaria

Mumps

RMSF

Salmonella (non-typhoidal)

Shigella

Non-cholera Vibrio

Yersinia

55

Which fungi have primary resistance of increased MICs to Amphotericin B?

C. lusitaniae

A. terreus

Scedosporium prolificans

Some Fusarium and Scedosporium apiospermum and C. auris

56

Burkholderia pseudomallei rule out and refer procedures

(Gram stain and plate growth, biochemicals)

Thin GNR possibly bipolar, growth on SB and MAC in 24-48 hrs, cols smooth then become wrinkled

Oxidase (POS), TSI (No RXN, or slight oxidation (yellow slant)), Motility (POS)

57

Which fungi do echinocandins have activity against?

Candida and Aspergillus

(though Vori is drug of drug of choice for Asp)

58

Q image thumb

diphyllobothrium latum

59

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Opisthorchis

60

What is the organism, vector, and animal reservoir for lyme disease?

Borrleia burgdorferi, Ixodes scapularis tick, rodents and deer

61

Best drugs for treatment of M. fortuitum?

Amikacin, Imipenem, Linezolid

62

Corynebacterium jeikeium features

GPR, very small rod, aerobic growth

Catalase +, increased AR