Female and Male Reproductive Anatomy Flashcards Preview

Anatomy II, Exam 2 > Female and Male Reproductive Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Female and Male Reproductive Anatomy Deck (52):
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The sympathetics of the pelvis come from the sacral plexus which is on the pelvic surface of the ____

  • Piriformis muscle 

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The Lumbosacral trunk recieves contribution from what nerves

  • L4-L5 + S1-S4(5)

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Muscular tube located between the bladder and the rectum and inferior to the uterus. It is about 8 cm long

Vagina

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The vagina opens through the _____ into the vestibule

Perineal membrane

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The vagina is supported by 

Pubovaginalis part of the lavator ani muscle 

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The female urethra begins at the ______ and passes through the 

  • The female urethra begins at the internal urethral orifice of the bladder
  • It passes through the external urethral sphincter, perineal membrane and then through the perineum and vestibule

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The vagina is between 

the bladder and the rectum

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The superior part of the vagina surrounds the 

cervix of the urerus

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What is culdoscopy

  • used to examine the uterine tubes or ovaries
  • it goes through the rectouterine pouch

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Culdocentesis 

  • to aspirate fluid from the rectouterine pouch 

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The ureter passes ____ to the uterine artery along the lateral sides of the uterus 

inferiorly 

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Uterine arteries enter the sides of the uterus through the _____

broad ligament

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Branches of the Uterine ateries ascend and descend to anastomose with the 

vaginal ateries and the ovarian arteries 

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Does the uterus have a vesical surface and an intestinal surface

yes

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The distal ends of the uterine tubes open to the _____

peritoneum 

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The fundus of the uterus is normally _____ and ___

anteverted and anteflexed 

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The axis of the uterus is angled _____ (relative to the vagina) and the top of the fundus "flexes" ____ over the bladder

  • anteriorly 
  • anteriorly 

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If the uterus is not anteverted and antiflexed, what may happen

  • intra-abdominal pressure can push the uterus inferiorly 
  • contributes to prolapse of the uterus 

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The ____ of the uterus is a double layer of peritoneum that "drapes" over the uterus and associated structures

broad ligament

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The broad ligament encloses the _____ ligament of the uterus as it extends from the anterior-lateral part of the uterus to the deep inguinal ring

round ligament

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Transverse cervical ligaments

  • condensations of endopelvic fascia that support the uterus 
  • they attach to the lateral sides of the uterus and vagina
  • The uterine vessles and nerves run through (or along) them

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Uterosacral ligaments

  • Are condensations of endopelvic fascia that extend from the sides of the cervix to the sacrum 

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while the ligament help to support the uterus, the ________ and the _______ are extremely important in preventing prolapse of pelvic structures 

  • ani muscle and perineal body 

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The ovaries are located near the attachment of the ______ to the lateral pelvic wall

broad ligament

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The ovaries are suspended from the lateral pelvic wall by 

suspensory ligament of the ovary which contains ovarian arteries, veins, nerves, and lymphatics 

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The inferior part of the vagina is innervated by 

somatic branches from the internal pudenal nerve

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The middle and superior parts of the vagina and uterus are innervated by 

  • Visceral nerves
    • uterovaginal plexus (part of pelvic plexus)
    • sympathetics from lumbar splanchnics
    • parasympathetics from pelvic splanchnics S2, S3, S4 (motor to the uterus and vagina) 

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Spinal blocks

  • Anesthetic agent is injected into the subarachnoid space between L3 and L4
  • Produces complete anesthesia below the waist. Uterine contractions cannot be felt 

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Peripheral nerve blocks

  • Allows sensation of uterine contractions
  • Pudendal block
    • blocks S2, S3, and S4 dermatomes and the inferior part of the vagina
    • Sacrospinous ligament is the landmark
  • An iloinguinal block must also be performed to abolish sensation in the anterior vulva
  • The posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (perineal branches) may also need to be anesthetized. 

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Bulbourethral Glands

  • Superior to perineal membrane, embedded within sphincter urethrae (external urethral sphincter)
  • Open into spongy urethra
  • mucus-like secretions lubricate the urethra

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Lymphatics of the prostate drains primarily 

to internal iliac nodes

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Lymphatics of the bladder primarily drains to 

external iliac nodes

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Lymphatics of perineal structures drain primarily to 

superficial inguinal nodes

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