Flashcards in Female Reproductive System Deck (57):
What are the general functions of the female repro system?
1. Produce gametes
2. Support developing embryo during pregnancy
3. Monthly menstrual cycle that affects female reproductive organs
What is the tunica albuginea?
Fibrous capsule surrounding ovary
What is the germinal epithelium?
1. Simple cuboidal epithelium that covers tunica albuginea
2. Does NOT germinate ova
What is the ovarian cortex? What is the function?
1. Outer portion of ovary
2. Houses developing gametes (oocytes) & follicles (sac like structures containing oocytes)
What is the ovarian medulla?
Connective tissue that holds vessels
What is the function of estrogens?
1. Promote proliferation and growth of specific sex related cells in body
2. Responsible for most of secondary sex characteristics of female
What is the function of progestins?
Responsible for final preparation of uterus for pregnancy and breasts for lactation
What are the effects of estrogen on fat?
1. Fat Deposition
A. Cause increased quantities fat deposition in SQ tissues
What are the effects of estrogen on uterus and sex organs?
1. Uterus & External Sex Organs
A. External genitalia, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina increase in size during puberty
B. Vaginal epithelium changes
C. Marked proliferation of endometrium
D. Development of endometrial glands
What are the effects of estrogen on breasts?
1. Increase breast development
2. Fat deposition, stromal tissue, ductal system
3. Initiate milk producing apparatus
What are the effects of estrogen on the skeleton?
1. Increase osteoblastic activity
2. Causes uniting of epiphyseal plates
What are the effects of progestin on the uterus?
1. Promote secretory changes in endometrium
2. Prepares uterus for implantation
What are the effects of progestin on the fallopian tubes?
Important for implantation of fertilized ovum
What are the effects of progestin on the fallopian breasts?
1. Proliferation and enlargement of lobules and alveoli in breasts
2. Causes breast tissue to become secretory
What are the three phases of the ovarian cycle?
Related to menstrual cycle
A. Follicular phase (Preovulatory phase)
C. Luteal phase (Postovulatory phase)
When does the follicular phase occur? How long does it last?
1. First half of cycle
2. This stage lasts about 2 weeks
What stimulates the follicular stage?
Stimulated by FSH from anterior pituitary
What occurs during the follicular stage?
1. Begins when 6-12 primordial follicles begin to grow
2. Only one follicle completes maturation process & expels its oocyte from an ovary
3. Flat follicular cells become cuboidal
4. Oocyte grows larger
5. Follicle now called primary follicle
6. Epithelial cells now multiply to form stratified epithelium, called granulosa cells
A. Secondary follicle
7. Oocyte now develops glycoprotein coat called zona pellucida
What is the zona pellucida?
1. Protective coat that sperm must penetrate to fertilize ovum
How does the theca folliculi develop?
As granulosa cells continue to divide, layer of connective tissue (theca folliculi) condenses around exterior of secondary follicle
What is the function of the theca folliculi and granulosa cells?
Theca folliculi & granulosa cells work together to produce estrogen which stimulates female sex organs
What hormone stimulates the theca folliculi?
What hormone stimulates the granulosa cells?
How does the antrum develop?
Clear liquid forms between granulosa cells & coalesces to form fluid filled cavity called antrum
What is the follicle called after the antrum forms?
After antrum forms, follicle now called tertiary follicle
What is the function of the antrum?
Antrum expands until it isolates oocyte that is surrounded by corona granulata /granulosa cells
When does ovulation occur?
Occurs about halfway through each ovarian cycle
What stimulates ovulation?
Stimulated by sudden release of large amount of LH just before day 14
How does ovulation occur?
1. Wall of Graafian follicle ruptures & oocyte exits the ovary
2. Egg enters fallopian tube
What happens to the ovary after ovulation?
1. After ovulation, the part of follicle that stays in ovary collapses
A. corpus luteum
What is the CL composed of?
Corpus luteum consists of theca folluculi & granulosa cells
What is the function of the CL?
1. Secretes estrogen & progesterone (Higher levels than estrogen)
A. Stimulates growth female sex organs
A. Prepares uterine lining for implantation of embryo
What happens in the luteal phase if there is no implantation?
Corpus luteum dies after 2 weeks & becomes scar called corpus albicans
What happens to the corpus albicans?
Corpus albicans stays in ovary for several months until it is phagocytized by macrophages
What are the 3 main sections of the fallopian tubes?
1.Infundibulum – open funnel like region at lateral end of tube
A. Fimbriae – ciliated finger-like projections that drape over ovary
2. Ampulla – medial to infundibulum, site where fertilization usually occurs
3. Isthmus – medial third of tube
What is the perimetrium?
What is the myometrium?
Bulky layer consisting of smooth muscle
What is the endometrium?
1. Consists of simple columnar epi containing secretory & ciliated cells
2. If fertilization occurs, embryo burrows into endometrium & remains there throughout pregnancy
What are the 2 main layers of the endometrium?
1. Stratum functionalis
2. Stratum basalis
What is the function of the stratum functionalis?
1. Undergoes cyclic changes in response to varying levels of ovarian hormones
2. Shed during menses
What is the function of the stratum basalis?
1. NOT shed during menses
2. Forms new functional layer after menses
What is the blood supply to the uterus?
Internal iliac arteries -> uterine arteries -> arcuate arteries -> radial arteries -> straight arteries to stratum basalis & spiral arteries to stratum functionalis
Which arteries undergo degeneration and regeneration with each menstrual cycle?
1. Spiral arteries
2. Also undergo spasms that cause functional layer to shed
What is the uterine cycle?
1. Series of cyclic changes that endometrium undergoes month after month
2. Response to changing hormone levels
3. Closely coordinated with phases of ovarian cycle
When is the menstrual phase? What occurs?
Stratum functionalis is shed
When is the proliferative phase? What occurs?
Stimulated by estrogen
When is the secretory phase?
A. Endometrium prepares for implantation of embryo
B. Stimulated by progesterone
What is the structure of the mammary glands?
1. Modified sweat glands that are present in both sexes
2. Consists of 15-25 lobes which are separated by adipose tissue & connective tissue
3. Lobes have smaller subunits called lobules
A. Lobules contain milk secreting cells
What is the function of mammary glands?
Produce milk to nourish infant in postpartum female
Describe the flow of milk
Milk secreting cells in lobules -> lactiferous ductule -> lactiferous sinus (milk accumulates here while nursing)
What stimulates menstrual bleeding?
Withdrawal of progesterone
What stimulates the proliferative phase?
What stimulates secretory phase?
What triggers LH surge?
What triggers ovulation?
What is the negative feedback loop for the female repro system?
Estradiol and progesterone feedback to the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary