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Flashcards in Feminism Deck (16):

Daring to be Bad - Alice Echols

- radical feminism turned into cultural feminism after 1975
- cultural feminism fails because it emphasizes creation of a counterculture where "female" values are nurtured
- cultural feminism gave conservative feminists opening to embrace middle class values


Sameness vs. Difference Arguments

- Sameness arguments stated that women are the same as men, hence the ERA. See Alice Paul and the Congressional Union
- Difference arguments state that women are different from men. See Phyllis Schlafly
- These arguments originated in the first wave as competed visions to achieve the vote


The Grounding of Modern Feminism - Nancy F. Cott

- first wave feminism died in 1920 with the vote
- acquiring the vote highlighted differences within the woman movement
- feminism is defined by everything not achieved by the vote, e.g. sex rights, economic independence, and full political participation
- gender is not always the most important category of analysis


Third Wave Feminism

- started by Rebecca Walker in 1992 and called for a more racially and sexually diverse movement


Personal Politics: The Roots of Women’s Liberation in the Civil Rights Movement and the New Left (1979) - Sara Evans

- young middle class feminist women mad at wife/mother role and sexual repression were radicalized by the southern civil rights movement and the student new left to explore what equality actually meant and how they might craft an ideology to lead them there, and in the process this caused them to create a movement of their own.
- feminism emerged in part from involvement of southern women within SNCC


Women's Rights

- de jure, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, NOW


Women's Liberation

- de facto, the personal is political


The Personal is Political

- the defining slogan of radical feminism, essentially means "what's done in the private sphere is important and has political implications, i.e. home life is part of the political battleground


Progressive Women in Conservative Times: Racial Justice, Peace, and Feminism, 1945 to the 1960s - Susan Lynn (1992)

- Women pushed for “progressive social reform in the two decades following World War II” in several social reform organizations such as the NAACP, YWCA, and American Association of University Women
- This “progressive coalition” far outnumbered “the tiny group of self-avowed feminists in the National Woman’s Party (NWP);
- the progressive coalition’s work bridged prewar progressive work to the radicalism of the 60s;
- post-war post mcarthyism shift away from economic and peace issues to race issues;


Republican Women: Feminism and Conservatism from Suffrage through the Rise of the New Right (2006) - Catherine Rymph

- by midcentury the Republican party was reliant on women for the smooth operation of political campaigns, despite not recognizing their contributions
- conservative Republican women broke off from the Federation of Republican women's clubs to form their own wing led by Schlafly
- Marion Martin’s organzing efforts from 1938-1946 of the Republican Clubs represent a strategy or template for other forms of “women’s empowerment” in the 20th century
- essentialist definitions of womanhood can be used for both progressive and conservative causes


Phyllis Schlafly's Vision

Schlafly’s vision entailed empowering women in politics and required emphasizing difference from men, ensuring that women’s distinct voices were heard


Separate Roads to Feminism - Benita Roth (2004)

- second wave FEMINISMS (plural)
- you can’t look within white feminism and conclude that there were no feminists of color, you have to look at the actual movements led by women of color
- you aren’t precluded from being a “feminist” if you are concerned with issues beyond gender, such as race and class
- BLACK FEMINISM emerged because of deficiencies to Black Liberation and White Women’s Liberation, politically distinct from White Feminism
- Black Women as the VANGUARD CENTER of political resistance; the VANGUARD CENTER = a constructed IDEOLOGY OF LIBERATION combining “racial, sexual, and class oppression”


Survival in the Doldrums: The American Women’s Rights Movement, 1945 to the 1960s - Leila Rupp and Verta Taylor (1987)

- the 40s-60s women’s rights movement was “elite-sustained” and thus not concerned with women of color, working-class women, or other racial/class/cultural biases
- the National Woman's Party was not grass-roots or progressive, but it did perpetuate feminist ideals and aims


Too Heavy a Load: Black Women in Defense of Themselves 1894-1994 (1999) - Deborah White

- black women defended themselves via organizations like the NACW
- Ida B. Wells and anti-lynching
- National Council of Negro Women


Women of Color and the Reproductive Rights Movement - Jennifer Nelson (2005)

- the fight for reproductive rights differed for women of color compared to white middle class women
- poor women and women of color placed emphasis not only on free access to abortion, but protection from sterilization, guaranteed economic support for children, access to healthcare, and access to child care
- women of color helped to shape and expand the scope of the battle for reproductive rights



- FBI initiative to disrupt radical movements, including radical feminist groups