Flashcards in Fill In The Blanks Deck (83):
Olfactory receptors connect to the ___________ ______ of the first cranial nerve.
_________ is the shell shaped part of the bony labyrinth containing the cochlear duct, and is concerned with hearing.
_______ ________ is part of the __________ bone, in the superior nasal cavity this is covered by a specialized area of nasal mucosa.
Cribiform plate, ethmoid
CN _ or ________ nerve is not considered a true nerve because it is structurally and functionally already part of the CNS.
_____ _________ are numerous olfactory axons that collectively make up the olfactory nerve.
___________ is phylogenetically the oldest portion of the cortical mantle of the cerebral hemisphere and develops in association with the olfactory system.
_________ is comprised of the piriform complex and the parahippocampal gyrus and receives sensory info from the MOB and the olfactory tract in the temporal lobe.
the ________ ________ _______ along with the olfactory tract carries olfactory info to the paleocortex in the temporal lobe along the olfactory stria near the uncus.
Main olfactory bulb
All vertebrates except for aquatic mammals posses a ________ ________ ________.
Main olfactory bulb
The _________ _________ ______ is present in most vertebrates but is absent in OWM, apes and humans and is associated with the VNO.
Accessory olfactory bulb
The _______ _________ _______ is thought to receive sensory input via volatile, airborne stimulus. This is associated with the MOB.
Main olfactory epithelium
the __________ _______ is not functionally separate from the MOE but receives nonvolatile aromatic stimuli called pheromones and uses the AOB.
A __________ is a nonvolatile aromatic stimulus received by the VN which can cause hormonal responses and in humans are found in apocrine glands, saliva, seminal and vaginal secretions and urine.
The _____ ________ __ ______ is a small area of olfactory epithelium located in the nasal mucosa posterior to the nasopalatine ducts that connect the oral and nasal cavities. This has been identified in rodents, but not in primates.
Septal organ of masera
The _______ _______ ___ ________ is used for alarm/alert pheromone reception in rodents.
Septal organ of masera
The ________ ________ is found in rodents, and is used as maternal and/or alarm pheromone receptors.
________ ________ _______ are formed from scroll-like bony features of the maxilla and ethmoidal elements in the internal nose.
Nasal turbinate bones
nasal turbinate bones are also known as _________ _______.
___________ unites the nasal turbinate bones with the oral cavity.
___________ ______ are within the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones and open into the nasal cavity beneath the turbinate mucosa.
________ are moist, naked surfaces surrounding the nasal openings/nostrils of most mammals.
__________ are sensitive to touch but no olfactory receptors, probably assists in delivering pheromone molecules to the VNO and is attached to the mucus membranes of the premaxilla by the philtrum.
____________ is a taste sensation that responds to glutamic acid.
____________ is a taste sensation that responds to alkalinity
___________ is a taste sensation that responds to acidity
__________ is a taste sensation that responds to glucose
___________ taste sensation works closely with sweetness to assess ripeness
___________ taste sensation has an inverse relationship between sensitivity and body size
**Larger people have a lessened sensitivity to sweetness**
_____________ taste sensation is limited in concentrated forms in nature. This is important to detect and preference may be learned in humans
_______________ taste sensation is typically avoided due to the association with toxic secondary compounds, yet secondarily sought after by humans for other side effects
____________ is the least understood taste sensation and is used as a flavor enhancer
Strepsirrhines are _____-______ _________ , this may increase their ability to smell.
Haplorhines, including platyrrhines and catarrhines, are ___-______ ________.
The ________________ are considered to be wet-nosed primates
The _______________ are considered dry-nosed primates with side-facing nostrils
The ____________ are considered to be dry-nosed primates with downward-facing nostrils
The ______________ is the primitive opening to the inner ear found in early tetrapods
The ______________ bone was originally part of the jaw articulation and later became the incus
The ___________ bone was originally part of the jaw articulation and later became the malleus
The ______________ bone becomes part of the tympanic bone
The ______________ and _______________ bones were established as part of the jaw in primitive mammals. They started as a part of a 4-bone joint and end up as part of the final 2-bone jaw.
Dentary and squamosal
The ____________ was derived from the articular bone and branchial arch 1. It acts on the tympanic membrane.
The ____________ is the bone derived from the quadrate and branchial arch 1.
The _____________ inserts on the oval window and is derived from branchial arch 2.
Stapes (this is also the most primitive middle ear bone)
The _____________ nerve is transported through the internal acoustic meatus via the petrous portion of temporal bone.
Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII)
The _____________ bone is derived from the angular and is formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone that houses the tympanic ring
Tympanic bone (aka tympanic bulla)
The _______________ _________ is formed by the angular; its position varies among mammals. In primates it may be within or outside the auditory bulla.
Tympanic ring (ectotympanic ring)
The ________ ________ is formed by the petrous part of the temporal bone in primates
Auditory bulla (tympanic bulla)
The _______________ _______ connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx
Eustachian tube (pharyngotympanic tube)
The ______________ _________ divides the outer ear from the middle ear and lies closest to the malleus.
Tympanic membrane (ear drum)
_______________ on hair cells and apical ends are bathed in endolymph.
________ _______ line the inside of the vestibular organ, have stereocilia and are the site of attachment for vestibular nerve endings
___________ are calcium carbonate crystals that sense gravity and linear accelerations
_________ ___________ includes both the utricle and saccule within the macula
_____________ is the gelatinous component of the crista ampullaris in ampullae
_____________ is the sensory organ of angular acceleration and deceleration in each ampulla (3 pairs)
___________ are swellings at the base of semicircular canals
_____________ is a potassium rich fluid inside the membranous labyrinth (continuous with the cochlea), that bathes the apical ends of the stereocilia
_____________ is an otolith organ within the macula that is oriented vertically and senses linear acceleration in a vertical plane
_________ is an otolith organ within the macula that is oriented horizontally and senses linear acceleration in a horizontal plane
____________ is a specially shaped membrane enclosed by the semicircular canals
___________ ___________ detect linear and rotational acceleration of the head and enclose the membranous labyrinth
__________ __________ muscle inserts on malleus
_____________ muscle moves the stapes
Cranial nerve _______ is transported through the petrous portion of the temporal bone through the internal acoustic meatus to the inner ear
__________ _________ is part of the medial/labyrinthine wall of the middle ear and is the site where low frequency sound waves exit the inner ear
___________ ___________ is part of the medial/labyrinthine wall, divides the middle ear from the inner ear, and is the site of insertion for the stapes
__________ __________ is the roof of the middle ear
Tegmen tympani (AKA tegmental wall)
_____________ bone forms the auditory bulla, is where the middle ear is located, and it itself is located behind the tympanic membrane lined with mucus membrane
_________ are is the site of speech production
___________ area is the site of speech recognition and comprehension
B. Wright Short Answer: Be able to define the distinct characteristics of the human brain as presented in the human strategy text.
Cerebrum extremely large relative to body size
Lateralization of the cerebrum
Areas of the left hemisphere specialized for language
Expanded limbic cortex
Explain the gustatory stimulus that leads to a salty taste. (B Wright short answer)
Limited in concentrated forms in nature, so important to detect, preference may be learned in humans
Explain what gustatory stimulus leads to a sweet taste. (B wright short answer)
Response to glucose
**There is an inverse relationship between sensitivity to sweet and body size**
Explain the gustatory stimulus that leads to a sour taste. (B wright short answer)
Response to acidity
**Works closely with sweetness to assess ripeness**
Explain the gustatory stimulus that leads to a bitter taste. (B wright short answer)
Response to alkalinity
**Typically avoided due to the association with secondary complex, yet sought after by humans for other side effects**
Explain the gustatory stimulus for an umami taste. (B. Wright short answer)
Savoriness, a response to glutamic acid.
**least understood, MSG used as a flavor enhancer**
Define distinct characteristics of the primate visual system as presented in the human strategy text (B. Wright short answer)
Frontally directed vision
Visual cortex processes opposite visual field
Midbrain processes information from opposite visual field
Elaboration of the visual cortex
Be able to explain the evolutionary transition of bones making up the jaw joint and how this relates to organization of the bony elements of the modern mammalian jaw and middle ear. (K. Wright short answer)
Jaw transitioned from solely a quadrate-articular joint, to a joint still containing the quadrate and articular as well as the dentary and squamosal to just a dentary and squamosal joint
With this transition, the quadrate and articular were reduced and the quadrate became the incus and the articular became the malleus, which are involved in hearing along with the tympanic bone.
Be able to explain the "Trade-Off hypothesis as it relates to special sense organs in primates (K. Wright short answer)
Rivalry between smell and vision for dominance
Visual parts of the brain developed at the expense of the olfactory parts in the forebrain
It is the idea that specialization of one sensory function will impair another
OWM use visual cues in reproductive behavior and have emphasized vision over olfaction while NWM rely more on olfaction
Be able to compare and contrast strepsirrhine, platyrrhine, and cattarrhine rhinaria. (K. Wright short answer)
Strepsirrhine: wet-nosed, forward facing nostrils - for enhanced smelling
Platyrrhine: dry-nosed, side facing nostrils
Catarrhine: dry-nosed, downward facing nostrils
- Naked surface surrounding the nasal openings/nostrils of most mammals
- Sensitive to touch but no olfactory receptors
- Probably assists in delivering the pheromones to the VNO
- Philtrum attaches the rhinarium to the mucus membrane of the premaxilla
Be able to explain the path of sound through the ear from the point at which sound waves enter the ear to where auditory stimuli are translated into neural signals. (K. Wright short answer)
1) Sound waves enter ear through ear canal
2) Pass through tympanic membrane causing ossicles to oscillate; flowing from malleus to incus to stapes, which inserts on oval window
3) Travels through oval window then enter the perilymph in the scala vestibuli
4) Sound waves cause vestibular membrane to move resulting in pressure wave formation in the endolymph within the cochlear duct and displacement of part of the basilar membrane
5) Hair cells in the organ of corti are distorted initiating a nerve signal
6) High frequency waves die out quickly whereas low frequency waves pass out through the round window