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Anatomy II Exam 3 Review > Fill In The Blanks > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fill In The Blanks Deck (83):
1

Olfactory receptors connect to the ___________ ______ of the first cranial nerve.

Olfactory bulb

2

_________ is the shell shaped part of the bony labyrinth containing the cochlear duct, and is concerned with hearing.

Cochlea

3

_______ ________ is part of the __________ bone, in the superior nasal cavity this is covered by a specialized area of nasal mucosa.

Cribiform plate, ethmoid

4

CN _ or ________ nerve is not considered a true nerve because it is structurally and functionally already part of the CNS.

1, olfactory

5

_____ _________ are numerous olfactory axons that collectively make up the olfactory nerve.

Fila olfactoria

6

___________ is phylogenetically the oldest portion of the cortical mantle of the cerebral hemisphere and develops in association with the olfactory system.

Paleocortex

7

_________ is comprised of the piriform complex and the parahippocampal gyrus and receives sensory info from the MOB and the olfactory tract in the temporal lobe.

Paleocortex

8

the ________ ________ _______ along with the olfactory tract carries olfactory info to the paleocortex in the temporal lobe along the olfactory stria near the uncus.

Main olfactory bulb

9

All vertebrates except for aquatic mammals posses a ________ ________ ________.

Main olfactory bulb

10

The _________ _________ ______ is present in most vertebrates but is absent in OWM, apes and humans and is associated with the VNO.

Accessory olfactory bulb

11

The _______ _________ _______ is thought to receive sensory input via volatile, airborne stimulus. This is associated with the MOB.

Main olfactory epithelium

12

the __________ _______ is not functionally separate from the MOE but receives nonvolatile aromatic stimuli called pheromones and uses the AOB.

Vomeronasal organ

13

A __________ is a nonvolatile aromatic stimulus received by the VN which can cause hormonal responses and in humans are found in apocrine glands, saliva, seminal and vaginal secretions and urine.

Pheromones

14

The _____ ________ __ ______ is a small area of olfactory epithelium located in the nasal mucosa posterior to the nasopalatine ducts that connect the oral and nasal cavities. This has been identified in rodents, but not in primates.

Septal organ of masera

15

The _______ _______ ___ ________ is used for alarm/alert pheromone reception in rodents.

Septal organ of masera

16

The ________ ________ is found in rodents, and is used as maternal and/or alarm pheromone receptors.

Gruenberg ganglion

17

________ ________ _______ are formed from scroll-like bony features of the maxilla and ethmoidal elements in the internal nose.

Nasal turbinate bones

18

nasal turbinate bones are also known as _________ _______.

Nasal conchae

19

___________ unites the nasal turbinate bones with the oral cavity.

Nasopharynx

20

___________ ______ are within the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid, and maxillary bones and open into the nasal cavity beneath the turbinate mucosa.

Paranasal sinuses

21

________ are moist, naked surfaces surrounding the nasal openings/nostrils of most mammals.

Rhinarium

22

__________ are sensitive to touch but no olfactory receptors, probably assists in delivering pheromone molecules to the VNO and is attached to the mucus membranes of the premaxilla by the philtrum.

Rhinarium

23

____________ is a taste sensation that responds to glutamic acid.

Umami

24

____________ is a taste sensation that responds to alkalinity

Bitter

25

___________ is a taste sensation that responds to acidity

Sour

26

__________ is a taste sensation that responds to glucose

Sweet

27

___________ taste sensation works closely with sweetness to assess ripeness

Sour

28

___________ taste sensation has an inverse relationship between sensitivity and body size

Sweet


**Larger people have a lessened sensitivity to sweetness**

29

_____________ taste sensation is limited in concentrated forms in nature. This is important to detect and preference may be learned in humans

Salty

30

_______________ taste sensation is typically avoided due to the association with toxic secondary compounds, yet secondarily sought after by humans for other side effects

Bitter

31

____________ is the least understood taste sensation and is used as a flavor enhancer

Umami

32

Strepsirrhines are _____-______ _________ , this may increase their ability to smell.

Wet-nosed primates

33

Haplorhines, including platyrrhines and catarrhines, are ___-______ ________.

Dry-nosed primates

34

The ________________ are considered to be wet-nosed primates

Strepsirrhines

35

The _______________ are considered dry-nosed primates with side-facing nostrils

Platyrrhines

36

The ____________ are considered to be dry-nosed primates with downward-facing nostrils

Catarrhines

37

The ______________ is the primitive opening to the inner ear found in early tetrapods

Spiracle

38

The ______________ bone was originally part of the jaw articulation and later became the incus

Quadrate

39

The ___________ bone was originally part of the jaw articulation and later became the malleus

Articular

40

The ______________ bone becomes part of the tympanic bone

Angular

41

The ______________ and _______________ bones were established as part of the jaw in primitive mammals. They started as a part of a 4-bone joint and end up as part of the final 2-bone jaw.

Dentary and squamosal

42

The ____________ was derived from the articular bone and branchial arch 1. It acts on the tympanic membrane.

Malleus

43

The ____________ is the bone derived from the quadrate and branchial arch 1.

Incus

44

The _____________ inserts on the oval window and is derived from branchial arch 2.

Stapes (this is also the most primitive middle ear bone)

45

The _____________ nerve is transported through the internal acoustic meatus via the petrous portion of temporal bone.

Vestibulocochlear (CN VIII)

46

The _____________ bone is derived from the angular and is formed by the tympanic part of the temporal bone that houses the tympanic ring

Tympanic bone (aka tympanic bulla)

47

The _______________ _________ is formed by the angular; its position varies among mammals. In primates it may be within or outside the auditory bulla.

Tympanic ring (ectotympanic ring)

48

The ________ ________ is formed by the petrous part of the temporal bone in primates

Auditory bulla (tympanic bulla)

49

The _______________ _______ connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx

Eustachian tube (pharyngotympanic tube)

50

The ______________ _________ divides the outer ear from the middle ear and lies closest to the malleus.

Tympanic membrane (ear drum)

51

_______________ on hair cells and apical ends are bathed in endolymph.

Stereocilia

52

________ _______ line the inside of the vestibular organ, have stereocilia and are the site of attachment for vestibular nerve endings

Hair cells

53

___________ are calcium carbonate crystals that sense gravity and linear accelerations

Otoliths

54

_________ ___________ includes both the utricle and saccule within the macula

Otolith organ

55

_____________ is the gelatinous component of the crista ampullaris in ampullae

Cupula

56

_____________ is the sensory organ of angular acceleration and deceleration in each ampulla (3 pairs)

Crista ampullaris

57

___________ are swellings at the base of semicircular canals

Ampullae

58

_____________ is a potassium rich fluid inside the membranous labyrinth (continuous with the cochlea), that bathes the apical ends of the stereocilia

Endolymph

59

_____________ is an otolith organ within the macula that is oriented vertically and senses linear acceleration in a vertical plane

Saccule

60

_________ is an otolith organ within the macula that is oriented horizontally and senses linear acceleration in a horizontal plane

Utricle

61

____________ is a specially shaped membrane enclosed by the semicircular canals

Membranous labyrinth

62

___________ ___________ detect linear and rotational acceleration of the head and enclose the membranous labyrinth

Semicircular canals

63

__________ __________ muscle inserts on malleus

Tensor tympani

64

_____________ muscle moves the stapes

Stapedius

65

Cranial nerve _______ is transported through the petrous portion of the temporal bone through the internal acoustic meatus to the inner ear

VII

66

__________ _________ is part of the medial/labyrinthine wall of the middle ear and is the site where low frequency sound waves exit the inner ear

Round window

67

___________ ___________ is part of the medial/labyrinthine wall, divides the middle ear from the inner ear, and is the site of insertion for the stapes

Oval window

68

__________ __________ is the roof of the middle ear

Tegmen tympani (AKA tegmental wall)

69

_____________ bone forms the auditory bulla, is where the middle ear is located, and it itself is located behind the tympanic membrane lined with mucus membrane

Petrosal bone

70

_________ are is the site of speech production

Broca's

71

___________ area is the site of speech recognition and comprehension

Wernicke's

72

B. Wright Short Answer: Be able to define the distinct characteristics of the human brain as presented in the human strategy text.

Cerebrum extremely large relative to body size

Lateralization of the cerebrum

Areas of the left hemisphere specialized for language

Expanded limbic cortex

73

Explain the gustatory stimulus that leads to a salty taste. (B Wright short answer)

Limited in concentrated forms in nature, so important to detect, preference may be learned in humans

74

Explain what gustatory stimulus leads to a sweet taste. (B wright short answer)

Response to glucose

**There is an inverse relationship between sensitivity to sweet and body size**

75

Explain the gustatory stimulus that leads to a sour taste. (B wright short answer)

Response to acidity

**Works closely with sweetness to assess ripeness**

76

Explain the gustatory stimulus that leads to a bitter taste. (B wright short answer)

Response to alkalinity

**Typically avoided due to the association with secondary complex, yet sought after by humans for other side effects**

77

Explain the gustatory stimulus for an umami taste. (B. Wright short answer)

Savoriness, a response to glutamic acid.

**least understood, MSG used as a flavor enhancer**

78

Define distinct characteristics of the primate visual system as presented in the human strategy text (B. Wright short answer)

Frontally directed vision

Visual cortex processes opposite visual field

Midbrain processes information from opposite visual field

Stereoscopic vision

Macula

Elaboration of the visual cortex

79

Be able to explain the evolutionary transition of bones making up the jaw joint and how this relates to organization of the bony elements of the modern mammalian jaw and middle ear. (K. Wright short answer)

Jaw transitioned from solely a quadrate-articular joint, to a joint still containing the quadrate and articular as well as the dentary and squamosal to just a dentary and squamosal joint

With this transition, the quadrate and articular were reduced and the quadrate became the incus and the articular became the malleus, which are involved in hearing along with the tympanic bone.

80

Be able to explain the "Trade-Off hypothesis as it relates to special sense organs in primates (K. Wright short answer)

Rivalry between smell and vision for dominance

Visual parts of the brain developed at the expense of the olfactory parts in the forebrain

It is the idea that specialization of one sensory function will impair another

OWM use visual cues in reproductive behavior and have emphasized vision over olfaction while NWM rely more on olfaction

81

Be able to compare and contrast strepsirrhine, platyrrhine, and cattarrhine rhinaria. (K. Wright short answer)

Strepsirrhine: wet-nosed, forward facing nostrils - for enhanced smelling

Platyrrhine: dry-nosed, side facing nostrils

Catarrhine: dry-nosed, downward facing nostrils

Rhinaria characteristics:
- Naked surface surrounding the nasal openings/nostrils of most mammals
- Sensitive to touch but no olfactory receptors
- Probably assists in delivering the pheromones to the VNO
- Philtrum attaches the rhinarium to the mucus membrane of the premaxilla

82

Be able to explain the path of sound through the ear from the point at which sound waves enter the ear to where auditory stimuli are translated into neural signals. (K. Wright short answer)

1) Sound waves enter ear through ear canal
2) Pass through tympanic membrane causing ossicles to oscillate; flowing from malleus to incus to stapes, which inserts on oval window
3) Travels through oval window then enter the perilymph in the scala vestibuli
4) Sound waves cause vestibular membrane to move resulting in pressure wave formation in the endolymph within the cochlear duct and displacement of part of the basilar membrane
5) Hair cells in the organ of corti are distorted initiating a nerve signal
6) High frequency waves die out quickly whereas low frequency waves pass out through the round window

83

Be able to explain which features of the vestibular apparatus sense horizontal and linear acceleration and give a very general explanation of how the vestibular apparatus functions to sense motion and position of the head. (K. Wright short answer)

Utricle is an otolith organ within the macula that is oriented horizontally and senses horizontal/linear acceleration

Sacculus is an otolith organ within the macula that is oriented vertically and senses vertical/linear acceleration

In vestibular apparatus, as orientation of the head changes or linear acceleration occurs, the otoliths move causing pressure to be distributed through the cupula in endolymph and onto the hair cells causing formation of neural signals