Final 2 Flashcards Preview

Bacterial Diseases > Final 2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final 2 Deck (49)
Loading flashcards...
1

list all the protein synthesis inhibitors

Aminoglycosides (kanamycin and gentamycin), tetracyclines, Macrolides (erythromycin), lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin), Chloramphenicol, streptogramins, everninomycins, oxazolidinones

2

Which antibiotics act on the 30s ribosome subunit?

Aminoglycosides and tetracyclines

3

Which antibiotics act on the 50s ribosome subunit?

Macrolides (erythromycin), lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin), Chloramphenicol, streptogramins, everninomycins, oxazolidinones

4

List all the DNA synthesis inhibitors:

Quinolones and fluoroquinolones (naladixic acid, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin), metronidazole, and novobiocin

5

List 3 examples of Bacterial porins

Rc porin, E. coli ompF, and E. coli lamB

6

how are aminoglycosides inactivated?

Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes either N-acetylate, O-phosphorylate, or O-adenylate the antibiotic

7

How is choloramphenicol inactivated?

acetyltransferases acetylate the antibiotic

8

How is streptogramin inactivated?

acetyltransferases acetylate the antibiotic

9

How do B-lactam targets protect themselves?

alteration of transpeptidase or
one of the other penicillin-
binding proteins (PBPs) in the cell

10

Give an example of a penicillin binding protein:

mecA gene of Staphylococcus
aureus encodes modified PBP2

11

How does a bacteria become resistant to glycopeptides through modification of the target?

alteration of the peptide portion of peptidoglycan

12

Give an example of modifying peptidoglycan to defend against glycopeptides?

the VanH, A, and X genes protect the bacteria from vancomycin through peptide modification

13

how does resistance to tetracycline occur?

"ribosome protection" or alteration of the ribosome

14

How does a bacteria have resistance to macrolides, streptogramins, and lincosamides?

RNA methylases add a methyl group(s)
to 23S rRNA (part of 50S subunit)

15

what does metronidazole target?

DNA itself

16

What does ciprofloxacin target?

DNA gyrase

17

What does novobiocin target?

DNA gyrase

18

The tetB gene encodes what, and in what bacteria?

TetB efflux pump in E. coli

19

what does the blaZ gene encode and in what bacteria?

B-lactamase in MRSA

20

what does the erm gene encode and in what bacteria?

RNA methylase in Gram-positive bacteria

21

how is the blaZ gene regulated?

by repression

22

The vanHAX genes are regulated by:

activation

23

What species have vanHAX genes?

enterococcus

24

the ampC gene is regulated by:

activation

25

the ampC gene encodes what? in what bacteria?

B-lactamase in E. coli

26

in what order are the integrase gene, promoter, and att gene in an integron?

<<>>

27

Conjugative transposons are like a combination of what?

a self transmissible plasmid that can integrate into the host chromosome like a prophage or transposon

28

Gram positive bacteria have what proteins to deal with DNA uptake?
which ones do gram negative have?

-ComEA, ComG and ComEC
-PilQ, PilE and ComA

29

what protein mediates plasmid conjugation?

relaxase

30

what protein signals relaxes?

coupling protein