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The narrowness of the skull behind the eye orbits, a characteristic of early hominins and Homo erectus.

Postorbital Constriction

1

A population of humans that lived in Europe and the Middle East between about 130,000 and 28,000 years ago. Debate continues about whether they are a subspecies of Homo sapiens or a separate species and to what extent they contributed to the ancestry of humans today.

Neandertals

2

A species of the genus Homothat arose 1.9 million years again Africa and then spread to parts of Asia and Europe.

Homo erectus

3

The modern form of the human species, which dates back 200,000 years.

Anatomically Modern Humans

4

The hypothesis that modern humans evolved as a new species in Africa 200,000 years ago and then spread throughout the Old World, replacing preexisting human populations.

African Replacement Model

5

The hypothesis that modern human anatomy arose first in Africa as a change within a species, and then spread through gene flow to populations outside of Africa. The gene pool of the non-African archaic populations was then set into an expanding population of modern humans out of Africa.

Assimilation Model

6

Any factor that interferes with the normal limits of operation of an organism.

Stress

7

The ability of an organism to respond physiologically or developmentally to environmental stress.

Plasticity

8

An extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from severe deficiencies in both proteins and calories.

Marasmus

9

Poor nutrition, from either too much or too little food, or from the improper balance of nutrients.

Malnutrition

10

In a physiologic sense, the maintenance of normal limits of body functioning.

Homeostasis

11

An extreme form of protein-calorie malnutrition resulting from a severe deficiency in proteins but not calories.

Kwashiorkor

12

States that 1) among mammals of similar shape, the larger mammal loses heat less rapidly than the smaller mammal and that 2) among mammals of similar size, the mammal with a linear shape will lose heat less rapidly than the mammal with a nonlinear shape.

Bergmann's Rule

13

States that mammals in cold climates tend to have shorter and bulkier limbs, allowing less loss of body heat, whereas mammals in hot climates tend to have long, slender limbs, allowing greater loss of body heat.

Allen's Rule

14

The maximum population size capable of being supported in a given environment.

Carrying Capacity

15

A model of demographic change stating that as a population becomes economically developed, a reduction in death rates (leading to population growth) will take place, followed by a reduction in birth rates.

Demographic Transition Theory

16

A newly identified infectious disease that has recently evolved.

Emergent Infectious Disease

17

A pattern of disease rate when new cases of a disease spread rapidly through a population.

Epidemic

18

A pattern of disease rate when new cases of a disease occur at a relatively constant but low rate over time.

Endemic

19

The increase in life expectancy and the shift from infectious to noninfectious disease as the primary cause of death.

Epidemiologic Transition

20

A disease caused by the introduction of an organic foreign substance into the body. Such substances include viruses and parasites.

Infectious Disease

21

A disease caused by factors other than the introduction of an organic foreign substance into the body.

Noninfectious Disease

22

A widespread epidemic that affects a large geographic area, such as a continent.

Pandemic

23

The study of ancient diseases.

Paleopathology

24

Infectious disease that had previously been reduced but that increases in frequency when micro organisms evolve resistance to antibiotics.

Reemergent Infectious Disease

25

A disease transmitted directly to humans from other animals.

Zoonose