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Flashcards in Final Deck (31):
1

What does the hypothalamus make?

TRH
CRH
GnRH
GHRH
Somatostatin
Dopamine

2

What does the anterior pituitary make?

TSH
FSH
LH
ACTH
MSH
Growth hormone
Prolactin

3

What does the posterior pituitary make?

Oxytocin
ADH
(Actually made in hypothalamus and transported to posterior pituitary via neurophysins (aka carrier proteins))

4

What does the thyroid make?

T3
T4
Calcitonin

5

What does the pancreas make?

Insulin
Glucagon

6

What does the adrenal cortex make?

Cortisol
Aldosterone
Adrenal androgens

7

What do the testes make?

Testosterone

8

What do the ovaries make?

Estradiol
Progesterone

9

What does the corpus luteum make?

Estradiol
Progesterone

10

What does the adrenal medulla make?

norepinephrine
epinephrine

11

What are the numbers in a gravida pregnancy terminology list?

"Florida Power and Lighting" - full term, preterm, abortion, living

12

What are the layers of the adrenal cortex?

Zona Glomerulosa
Zona Fasciculata
Zona Reticularis

13

What is the Zona Glomerulosa derived from, and what does it produce?

Derived from mesoderm
Produces aldosterone

14

Which hormone regulates the Zona Glomerulosa?

Angiotensin II

15

What is the Zona Fasciculata derived from, and what does it produce?

Derived from mesoderm
Produces cortisol

16

Which hormone regulates the Zona Fasciculata?

Regulated by ACTH, CRH

17

What is the Zona Reticularis derived from, and what does it produce?

Derived from mesoderm
Produces DHEA (androgen)

18

Which hormone regulates the Zona Reticularis?

Regulated by ACTH, CRH

19

What is the mnemonic for remembering the layers of the adrenal cortex and what they produce?

GFR corresponds with Salt (mineralcorticoids/aldosterone), Sugar (glucocorticoids/cortisol), and Sex (androgens/DHEA)

20

What is the anterior pituitary derived from?

Oral ectoderm (Rathke pouch)

21

What is the posterior pituitary derived from?

Neuroectoderm

22

What are the types of endocrine pancreas cell types, and where are they made?

Islets of Langerhans are collections of alpha, beta, and gamma endocrine cells
Alpha = glucagon (peripheral)
beta = insulin (central)
gamma = somatostatin (interspersed)

23

What does insulin do?

Increase glucose transport into skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
Increase glycogen synthesis and storage
Increase triglyceride synthesis
Increase sodium retention
Increase protein synthesis (muscles)
Increase cellular uptake of potassium and amino acids
Decrease glucagon release
Decrease lipolysis in adipose tissue

24

Does insulin cross the placenta? Does glucose?

Glucose DOES, insulin DOES NOT cross placenta

25

Which glucose transporter(s) are insulin dependent?

GLUT 4 (found in adipose tissue, striated muscle)

26

How does GnRH affect FSH and LH?

Tonic GnRH suppresses HPG axis
Pulsatile GnRH leads to puberty, fertility
Hyperprolactinemia suppresses the whole shebang

27

Why is there hyperpigmentation seen in Cushing disease?

MSH and ACTH share the same precursor molecule, proopiomelanocortin; therefore, when ACTH/cortisol is elevated, MSH becomes elevated and there is an increase in melanogenesis

28

What does prolactin do?

Decreases GnRH
Allows for lactation
Inhibits ovulation in females and spermatogenesis in males
Excessive amounts of prolactin are associated with decreased libido

29

How does somatostatin affect hormones?

Decreases growth hormone and TSH
analogs can be used to treat acromegaly

30

With which hypothalamic pathway is prolactin associated?

Tuberoinfundibular pathway of the hypothalamus
Prolactin is tonically inhibited by dopamine

31

How do you treat thyroid storm?

4 P's
Beta blockers (propranolol)
PTU
Corticosteroids (Prednisolone)
Potassium iodide