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Flashcards in Final Deck (56)
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1

Action potential

Electrical impulses in nervous system

2

Afferent nerve

Information from tissues to CNS
No dendrites (only sensory receptor), unipolar neuron

3

Interneurons

Between sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent)
Within the spinal cord
Usually multipolar neuron

4

Efferent neuron

Nerve impulse from CNS to peripheral tissue
Multipolar neuron

5

Somatic nervous system is under ___________ control of __________ muscle

Voluntary; skeletal

6

Exteroceptors

Information about external environment in form of touch, temp, sight, smell, taste

7

Proprioceptors

Monitor the position and movement of skeletal muscle and joints

8

Interceptors

Monitor digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, urinary, and reproduction

9

What two properties must a neuron have?

Excitability- ability to respond to a stimulus
Conductivity- ability to transmit a signal

10

What is the function of a neurotubule?

Intracellular transport of proteins and other substances in both directions between cell body and end the cell processes

11

What is a neurofilament?

Skeletal framework for the axon

12

Dendrite

Threadlike cytoplasmic projections which are actually extensions of the cell body
Conduct nerve impulses toward the cell body

13

A neuron axons originates from the____________

Axon hillock

14

What is the site called where the nerve impulse is initiated and lies immediately after axon hillock

Initial segment

15

The fine extensions at the end of an axon are _____________ which end in tiny swellings called ___________________________

Telodendron
Terminal buttons/boutons

16

The junction between end bulb and the axon/cell body/dendrite

Synapse

17

The lipid sheath surrounding a neuron is __________? Made up of ______________ cells in PNS and ____________ cells in CNS.
What is the purpose of this lipid sheath?

Myelin
Schwaan cells
Oligodendrocytes
Increase speed of nerve impulses

18

What are the functional segments of a neuron

Receptive segment
Initial segment -trigger zone for action potential
Conductive segment
Transmission segment

19

What facilitates slow axonal transport and what is being transported?

Peristaltic waves of axon membrane
Requires ATP

Transport of materials necessary to maintain axon and dendrites

20

What facilitates fast axonal transport and what is carried?

Convey neurotransmitter vesicles down neurotubles, requires ATP
Anterograde or retrograde

21

Anterograde transport

Material transported form cell body along axon to axon terminal
Kinesin

22

Retrograde Transport

Material returned to cell body where it is degraded or recycled.
Dyenin

23

Neural reflex

Sensory fibers deliver info to CNS and motor fibers carry motor commands to peripheral effectors

24

Endocrine reflex

Stimulus trigger production of a hormone which leads to a reduction in magnitude of a stimulus

25

Spinal reflex

Spinal cord is integrating center
eg. Contracting muscle pulls hand away form a painful stimulus

Negative control mechanism: corrective mechanism that opposes variation from normal limits

26

Cranial reflex

Sense stimulus and control output
Eg. Cranial nerve II (optic) detects light changes -> brainstem and cranial nerve III adjusts pupil diameter

27

Monosynaptic reflex

Most simple reflex
Sensory neuron directly synapse on motor neuron

28

Stretch reflex

Sensory nerve ->spinal cord -> motor neuron -> effector organ
Large myelinated type A fibers
Eg. Oppose sudden changes in muscle fibe length (maintain normal skeletal muscle)

29

Polysynaptic reflex

One or more interneurons synapse with sensory and motor neurons
Produce more complicated responses because the interneurons can control several different groups

30

Ligand gated channels

Opened by ligand (drug)
eg norepinephrine