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Flashcards in FINAL Deck (70):
1

vii chords

- substitutes for V(7)
- usually early in phrase
- root is LT

2

vii°6

- triad usually 1st inv
- usually double bass note (RE)

3

I -- vii°6 -- I6 (or vice versa) part writing

- voice exchange btwn bass and upper voice
- DO RE MI against MI RE DO

4

vii°/ø7

- LT (TI) moves up, 7th (LE/LA) moves down
- resolve tritone w bass
- avoid parallel 5ths involving bass

5

plagal cadence

IV --> I

6

deceptive cadence

V --> vi

7

subphrase

musical material that is part of phrase, but not complete phrase

8

motive

smallest recognizable musical idea, which can be characterized by pitches/contour and/or rhythm

9

period phrase

weaker phrase followed by stronger phrase

10

antecedent

weaker cadence

11

consequent

stronger cadence

12

parallel

2 phrases have similar theme (a, a')

13

contrasting

2 phrases have different themes (a, b)

14

interrupted

HC --> T

15

continuous

HC --> NOT T

16

sectional

IAC --> PAC

17

sentence

3 part structure that usually has 8/4 measures in a short short long arrangment

18

what does a sentence do

1. state motive/basic idea
2. restate motive/basic idea (exact/transformed)
3. develop/fragment motive/basic idea, end w/ cadence

19

nested sentence

occurs in 2nd 1/2 of larger sentence, b/c both sentences will end w/ cadence

20

double period

- 4 phrases, ALL ARE PIP
- 2nd cadence weak (usually HC)
- strongest cadence at end

21

phrase group

phrases group together but lack weak-strong cadences of antecedents/consequents

22

hypermeter

one beat per measure

23

phrase rhythm

interaction of phrase structure/hypermeter

24

phrase structure

phrase, cadence, subphrase, period, double period, phrase group

25

meter

beats group into measures

26

submeter

beat divisions group into beats

27

phrase overlap

phrase ends as next one begins

28

sequence

repeating harmonic/melodic patterns

29

descending 5ths

BEADGCF

30

ascending 5ths

FCGDAEB

31

descending 3rds

C-G, A-E, F-C, D-A, B-F, G-D, E-B

32

ascending 5-6

C-A, D-B, E-C, F-D, G-E, A-F, B-G

33

lead-in

material occurs before phrase begins, often introduces accompaniment before beginning of phrase

34

cadential extension

material occurs after cadence, usually prolongs cadence

35

repetition

restating material, either literally or transformed

36

deceleration

written out ritardando or fermata

37

interpolation

inserting unrelated material into phrase

38

diminution

faster

39

inversion

flipped upside-down

40

extension

longer

41

truncation

cut off early

42

fragmentation

to take part of motive and use it later

43

transposition

different key

44

embellish

adding non-chord tones to motive

45

DIETFATE

Diminution
Inversion
Extension
Truncation

Fragmentation
Augmentation
Transposition
Embellish

46

augmentation

slower

47

secondary dominants

functions as D chord (not of OG key, but next acting as T)

48

tonicization

treatment of a pitch other than the overall tonic (the "home note" of a piece) as a temporary tonic in a composition (secondary dom)

49

to write a vii°7 secondary dom

1. take root of V7
2. move it up a half step

50

cadential 6/4

I6/4 right before V(7)

51

pedal 6/4 chord

bass stays same (even just lowest note in pattern) usually root

52

passing 6/4 chord

bass moves stepwise, usually root-3rd

53

mediant chord

iii
- usually connects T--> PD (vi or IV, rarely ii)
- rarely PD --> D

54

submediant chord

vi
- usually extends T before PD (IV or ii)
- sometimes substitute for I in decep. res.
- rarely PD (directly to V)

55

passing tone

- step, then step again in same direction
- usually UA

56

neighbor tone

- step, then step again in opp. direction
- usually UA

57

suspension

- susp, then resolve down by step
- ACC

58

appoggiatura

- leap/skip into NC tone, resolve by step in opp. direction
- ACC

59

escape tone

- step into NC tone, skip in opp. direction into next chord tone (beauty and the beast)
- UA

60

anticipation

- occurs on weak part of beat, ant. next chord tone
- UA

61

phrase

smallest unit of music w/ harmonic/melodic motion and cadence

62

modulation

change of key, supported by cadence in new key (usually PAC/IAC)

63

closely related keys

share nearly all same pitche classes

64

how to determine closely related keys

key sigs are rel. maj/min, or differ by 1 accidental

65

major closely related keys

ii iii IV V vi

66

minor closely related keys

III iv v VI VII

67

direct modulation

key changes abruptly w/o use of pivot chord, usually btwn phrases (love on top)

68

pivot chord

analyzed in both keys at the same time

69

how to ID pivot chord

1. locate first chord clearly in new key
2. back up 1 chord to use as pivot (unless SEC DOM or 6/4)

70

how to write pivot chord modulations

1. write RNs for first chords in OG keys (T and subordinate)
2. write RNs for cadence in new key
3. choose pivot and place in middle of phrase
4. write RNs for rest of phrase