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Phil 331 (Computer Ethics) > Final > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Deck (68):
1

Sociologically, how is the "self" defined?

The self is a relatively stable set of perceptions of who we are in relation to ourselves, to others, and to social systems.

2

Sociologically, what does "self-concept" mean?

Our self-concept is the ideas and feelings that we have about ourselves.

3

What is the ideal of the "authentic self"?

The authentic self is the ideal of having only one persona, not multiple conflicting personas.

4

What is the argument for the authentic self?

People believe that the division of the self into separate personas is harmful, and that in order to be a good and happy person, we must eliminate the incompatibilities between our different selves.

5

How does the authentic self inform our understanding of right and wrong?

A person who maintains multiple personal risks becoming a hypocrite--that is, someone who claims to follow a particular moral code but then acts contrary to that code.

6

Define:
griefer

In an online game or community, a griefer is a person who harasses or deliberately provokes other players or members in order to spoil their enjoyment.

7

Define:
cyberstalker

A cyberstalker is a person who uses the Internet to harass a particular target, often using fake identities or public Web sites to enable the harassment.

8

What's the difference between trolls/griefers and cyberbullies/stalkers?

Whereas griefers select random or ideologically-motivated targets, cyberstalkers tend to target people they know from everyday life.

9

Define:
behavioral addiction

Behavioral addiction is an addiction to certain online behaviours like gambling, video games, internet surfing, sex, extreme sports, etc.

10

What are the two major concerns when it comes to behavioral addictions to Internet-enabled behaviours?

1. It eliminates the fear of getting caught.
2. Convenience: the Internet makes it easy to engage in an addictive behaviour any time and from any place

11

What's the difference between a troll and a griefer?

A troll aims to subvert a conversation or provoke an emotional response, whereas a griefer aims to be a spoilsport.

12

Define "social network" in its original sense.

A social network is a visual representation of the people and organizations in society, and the various types of one-to-one relationships between them.

13

How do today's social networks differ from the original ones?

Today's social networks are an attempt to directly represent and leverage the social connections between people and institutions.

14

What is/was Stuxnet?

Stuxnet is a malicious computer worm that was responsible for causing substantial damage to Iran's nuclear program.

15

Where is Stuxnet believed to have been developed?

Although neither country has openly admitted responsibility, the worm is believed to be a jointly built American/Israeli cyberweapon.

16

Define "expression" in terms of freedom of expression.

Any activity that conveys, or attempts to convey, meaning to the exception of acts of violence and threats of violence

17

Who said: "Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign."?

John Stuart Mill

18

According to Mill, at what point can the state limit the influence public opinion has over individual independence?

The only justification for curtailing the freedom of individuals is when an individual poses a threat to others.

19

What is the difference between American and Canadian views on freedom of speech?

In Canada, hate speech is criminalized. In the States historically and consistently strikes down laws which restrict speech — including hate speech — unless it falls into one of the exceptions, e.g. incitement where there is an imminent danger of physical violence.

20

Who created WikiLeaks?

Julian Assange, an Australian journalist

21

What is the purpose of WikiLeaks, according to Assange?

The purpose of WikiLeaks is to foster more open and transparent governments by revealing things that government would prefer to hide.

22

How did Stephen Moss describe WikiLeaks?

Moss described WikiLeaks as a website dedicated to being an uncensorable system for untraceable mass document leaking

23

What was the big controversy with WikiLeaks?

Beginning in 2010, the site began to post classified, confidential, and secret, documents from the United States, particularly in regards to the interrogation of prisoners at Guantanamo Bay

24

How does John Stuart Mill say that a society should be judged?

Utility in the largest sense, grounded on the permanent interest of man as a progressive being.

25

What does Mill say is the only justification for curtailing the freedom of others?

"The only purpose for which power can be rightfully exercised over any member of a civilized community, against his will, is to prevent harm to others."

26

What are Mill's two reasons for permitting and encouraging expression of any opinion, no matter how distasteful?

1. An opinion we find distasteful might just be correct.
2. Suppression of false arguments weakens the arguments for the truth, thus increasing the likelihood of the public being fooled by false arguments in the future.

27

What kind of speech is NOT protected?
(the main and accepted five)

Dangerous, treasonous, seditious, hate, and speech that is harmful to children

28

What are the controversial unprotected forms of speech?

Violent, disgusting and psychologically painful, pornographic, and blasphemous

29

What is net neutrality?

The principle that Internet service providers (and governments) should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, and without favouring or blocking particular products or websites.

30

What is the Miller test?

It is a set of criteria for determining if material can be considered obscene

31

What are the three criteria of the Miller test?

1. The average person, applying contemporary community standards, would find that the work, taken as a whole, appeals to the prurient interest.

2. The work depicts or describes, in a patently offensive way, sexual conduct specifically defined by applicable state law.

3. The work, taken as a whole, lacks serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

32

What is the SLAPS test?

The third criterion of the Miller test, which looks at whether a work has any serious literary, artistic, political, or scientific value.

33

Define:
filtering

The interception and removal of messages in a network to prevent them from reaching their destination

34

What four types of messages are commonly filtered by governments?

1. Political and power
2. Social norms and morals
3. Security concerns
4. Network tools

35

What is the "marketplace of ideas"?

The "marketplace of ideas" is a rationale for freedom of expression which holds that the truth will emerge from the competition of ideas in free, transparent public discourse.

36

State the First Amendment

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or of the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.”

37

State Section 2 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms

This section lists "fundamental freedoms" theoretically
applying to everyone in Canada, regardless of whether they are a Canadian citizen, or an individual or corporation. Freedom of expression, religion, thought, belief, peaceful assembly, and freedom of association.

38

What is rule 1.07 of the ACM/IEEE Software Engineering Code of Ethics?

A software engineer should “consider issues of physical
disabilities, allocation of resources, economic disadvantage, and other factors that can diminish access to the benefits of software.”

39

What is utilitarian calculus?

The process of trying to calculate how much a particular decision will affect the overall amount of happiness in the world.

40

What is a threat analysis?

An attempt to systematically identify the ways that a technology might be vulnerable to a malicious attack

41

Define:
Vulnerabilities

potential avenues of attack

42

How does a threat analysis apply to vulnerable populations?

As a society, we can take a similar approach to protect vulnerable populations. Our threat analysis should try to identify those who might exploit a vulnerable person and then explain why.

43

Define:
Autonomy

The freedom for an entity to make decisions without outside constraints or interference

44

What kind of people are vulnerable?

Children, the elderly, and persons with certain mental
disorders are unable to exercise autonomy. This make them vulnerable to surrogate decision makers.

45

How does utilitarian calculus apply to vulnerable groups?

A utilitarian must be careful to not just consider the majority, but also take vulnerable groups into consideration when doing their utility calculations

46

How does the Ethics of Caring apply to vulnerable groups?

Nodding misses out on vulnerable groups, as unless you personally know someone who is in a vulnerable group, the Ethics of Caring doesn't actually say that you have to consider them.

47

How does Rawls's principle of justice apply to vulnerable groups?

The veil of ignorance argument states that if we didn't know whether or not we were a member of a vulnerable group, we would want to hedge our bets by making sure that the society takes care of vulnerable people.

48

What is the similarity between the "least advantaged" and "vulnerable"?

They both generally refer to the people in society who have the hardest time taking advantage of society's benefits.

49

What is the chilling effect?

A situation in which one feels pressure not to do something, even though it is legal to do so, because of fear of prosecution

50

Define:
Accessibility

The degree to which people with disabilities can use a
given technology

51

What is the difference between sex and gender?

Sex refers to biological and physiological characteristics that define men and women, whereas gender refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women

52

What does it mean that a technology is pervasive?

That it has spread through society

53

Define:
artificial intelligence

Artificial intelligence is a human-made artefact's ability to learn and reason

54

What is determinism?

Determinism is the thesis that everything that happens
in the universe is determined according to the laws of
nature

55

What is machine learning?

A type of artificial intelligence; algorithms that allow computers to take in data and automatically learn to recognise patterns and make predictions

56

What is intelligence?

Loosely defined as the ability to learn and reason

57

What is the difference between autonomy and intelligence?

One is the ability to learn and reason, whereas the other is the freedom to make choices based on that.

58

Why do autonomy and pervasiveness go hand in hand?

First, greater autonomy makes technology cheaper to use, which allows it to become more pervasive. On the other hand, as a tech becomes pervasive, the financial incentives for automating it increase.

59

What is the PageRank algorithm?

It looks at the links between webpages to figure out which webpages are most important.

60

What are the two main ideas behind the PageRank algorithm?

First, popularity matters: if a webpage has 100 other pages that link to it, it's probably better than the one with only 3 other pages linking to it. Second, not everyone's vote is equal: A link from a good webpage is better than a link from an inferior one.

61

What is augmented reality?

A computer graphics technology that draws virtual objects laid over the real world.

62

What was the Flash Crash?

In May 2010, the Dow Jones dropped 900 pts in the span of about 15 mins, and then recovered almost immediately. This was caused by the interaction of several automated trading systems.

63

What does Marshall McLuhan think about media?

He considers media to be extensions of humanity, that is, each media extends some natural human process.

64

What does McLuhan mean by "the medium is the message"?

The contents are always less important than the medium itself.

65

Why does McLuhan think media are particularly insidious?

Media are often overlooked because people are focused on the contents, not the medium

66

What is the name of the four questions McLuhan designed to help us analyse a new medium and forsee its effects?

Tetrad

67

What are the four tetrad?

1. What is enhanced?
2. What is made obsolete?
3. What recurrence or retrieval of earlier actions is brought into play?
4. What is the reversal potential?

68

Define:
political censorship

Political censorship exists when a government attempts to conceal, fake, distort, or falsify information that its citizens receive by suppressing or crowding out political news that the public might receive through news outlets.