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Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (77):
1

What is the definition of complementary and alternative medicine?

A group of diverse medicine or practices that are not generally considered conventional medicine

2

What percent of people using CAM do not inform their doctors about it?

50-75%

3

What are examples of energy therapies?

Reiiki
Magnets
Qigong

4

What are examples of biologically based CAM?

Diets
Herbs
Vitamins

5

What are examples of manipulative and body based therapies?

Massage
Chiropractic
Osteopathy

6

What are examples of mind-body interventions?

Yoga
Spirituality
Relaxation

7

What are examples of alternative medical systems?

Homeopathy
Naturopathy
Ayurveda

8

What are the most commonly ailments treated with CAM?

Back pain
Neck pain
Joint pain

9

What is the common theme among patients that use alternative therapies?

Their clinicians didn't listen to them

10

What are the different learning styles?

Visual
Aural - auditory
Read/write
Kinesthetic

11

What does it mean to be a context specific multimodal learner?

Learners choose a single mode to suit the occasion or situation

12

What is important to know about the adult learner style?

Problem centered/oriented - seek solutions to help them in the future
Results oriented
Self directed
Skeptical of new info
Seeks info that applies to their needs
Accepts responsibility for learning

13

What is important to know about the youth learner style?

Subject oriented - complete task
Future oriented - learn because it is required
Dependent on adults for direction
Accepts new info
Seeks info for unclear future
Dependent on others to design their learning

14

What are the four parts of patient education?

Convey the information
Check for understanding
Enhance memory
Use negotiation

15

What needs to be done during the enhance memory stage of patient education?

Write down the instructions for the patient
Provide other instructional material
Refer patient to reputable website

16

What is health literacy?

Ability to read and perform numerical tasks required to function in the health care environment

17

What are the health literacy facts for adults in the US?

Most read between an 8th and 9th grade level
50% are unable to understand preprinted health care material
21%-23% read at the 5th grade level or lower

18

What are the consequences of patient's having inadequate health literacy?

Patients may not return for follow up
Have difficulty controlling chronic illness
Less likely to understand HPDP

19

What are some signs that someone may have a low health literacy?

Asking staff for help
Bringing someone else to read
Inability to keep appointments
Making excuses
Mimicking behavior
Postponing decision making

20

What tool is used to assess health literacy?

REALM
Rapid
Estimate of
Adult
Literacy in
Medicine

21

What are the six steps to enhance understanding?

Slow down
Avoid jargon
Pictures
Limit amount of information given
Teach back
Be respectful, caring and sensitive

22

What is the definition of conseling?

Act of exchanging opinions and ideas
Something that provides direction or advice

23

What are some examples of problem behaviors?

Tobacco use
Drug use
Weight control
High-fat diets
Safe sex
Sunscreen use
Exercise acquisition
Screenings

24

What are some reasons patients don't follow their clinician's instructions?

Personality interferes with cooperation
Denial prevents cooperation
Cognitive - patient doesn't understand why it needs to be done
Culture and beliefs - beliefs about the illness interfere

25

What are the five A's to initiating a discussion about problem behaviors?

Ask
Assess readiness to change
Advise
Assist
Arrange

26

What are the five R's of motivational interviewing?

Relevance
Risks
Rewards
Roadblocks
Repetition

27

What is the definition of culture?

Integrated pattern of learned beliefs and behaviors that can be shared among groups

28

What is the definition of ethnicity?

Represents social groups with a shared history, sense of identity, geography and cultural roots

29

What is the definition of race?

A geographic human population distinguished by physical characteristics

30

What is the definition of a stereotype?

Generalizations about a group of people that a defined set of characteristics is given to

31

What is the definition of prejudice?

Preconceived judgement or opinion

32

What are values?

Standards we use to measure our own and others beliefs and behaviors

33

What are the three skills of cultural communication?

Curiosity - ask questions about culture
Empathy
Respect

34

What are the four E's of dealing with underserved populations?

Empathize
Enlist
Explain
Empower

35

What is the definition of social determinants?

Conditions in which people live, work and play in

36

What are different examples of social determinants?

Economic stability
Physical environment
Education
Food
Community
Health care system

37

What are the four impactful factors on risk of premature death?

Individual behavior (40%)
Genetics (30%)
Social and environmental factors (20%)
Health care (10%)

38

What are the goals of healthy people 2020?

Promote quality of life
Create environments that promote good health
Achieve health equality
Make everyone healthier

39

What is REACH?

A program designed to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities

40

Who is the audience for a soap note?

Lawyers
Patient
Insurance companies
Other providers

41

What do the different letters in SOAP stand for?

Subjective
Objective
Assessment
Plan

42

What does the subjective portion of a SOAP note contain?

CC
HPI
PMH
FMH
Social history
ROS

43

What does the objective portion of a soap note contain?

Physical exam findings organized by body systems
Lab results and findings from today

44

In what order is observed information documented?

From head to toe

45

What does the assessment portion of a SOAP note contain?

Conclusions
Diagnoses
Differential diagnoses

46

What does the plan portion of a SOAP note contain?

New testing ordered
Patient education items
Treatments/therapeutics
Referrals
Follow-up

47

What is the order for listing medication?

Name
Strength
Dosage
Route
Frequency
Duration

48

What are some different kinds of hospital charts?

Admission
Orders
Progress
Operative
Discharge

49

What does an operative note entail?

Brief hand-written form done immediately after surgery
PA can write
PA can not write full operative report

50

What is the difference between elopement and AMA?

Elopement - patient can not be found
AMA - patient said they were leaving against medical advisement

51

How long should hands be rubbed together when washing hands?

20 seconds

52

What percent alcohol must an antibacterial be to be useful?

60%

53

What are the different vital signs?

Pulse
Respiratory rate
Temperature
Blood pressure

54

What is the normal range for pulse?

60 - 80 bpm at rest

55

What is the normal range for temperature?

97.8 - 99.1
98.6 is average or 37.0 C

56

What is the normal range for breathing rate?

12 to 18 bpm

57

What is normal blood pressure?

120 / 80 mm Hg

58

What are the tools needed to gather vital signs?

Stethoscope
Sphygmomanometer
Watch displaying seconds
Thermometer

59

What are the general considerations when obtaining vital signs?

No alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, or vigorous exercise within 30 minutes of exam
Seated with both feet on ground and back supported
Room should be quiet and patient comfortable

60

What does febrile mean?

Fever

61

What temperature is considered medically significant for a fever?

100.4 F
38 C

62

When should a rectal temperature be obtained?

Infants
Unconscious patients
When accurate temp needed

63

What is tachycardia?

Fast heart rate
Greater than 100 bmp

64

What is bradycardia?

Slow heart rate
Less than 60 bpm

65

Where are the different locations that a pulse can be taken?

Radial
Apical
Carotid
Brachial
Femoral
Popliteal
Dorsalis pedis
Posterior tibial

66

What is the normal respiration rate for a newborn?

44 breaths per minute

67

What are the different respiration abnormalities?

Tachypnea - rapid shallow
Hyperpnea - rapid, deep
Bradypnea
Labored

68

What is systolic blood pressure?

Just after the heart beats
First number

69

What is diastolic blood pressure?

Just before the heart beats
Second number

70

What are the five phases of korotkoff sounds?

Phase 1 - sharp thuds, start at systolic
Phase 2 - blowing sound, auscultatory gap
Phase 3 - crisp thud
Phase 4 - sounds become muffled
Phase 5 - end of sounds

71

What is the auscultatory gap?

Silent interval between systolic and diastolic pressure
Associated with arterial stiffness

72

What are the different categories of blood pressure?

Normal - less than 120 and 80
Pre-hypertension - 120-139 or 80-89
Stage 1 - 140-159 or 90-99
Stage 2 - greater than 160 or 100

73

How is BMI calculated?

Weight in Kg divided by height in meters squared

74

What are the CAGE questions?

Used for drinking
Cut down
Annoyed by criticism
Guilty about drinking
Eye-opener

75

What are the five P's of sex?

Protection
Prevention
Past history of STI
Practices
Partners

76

Why may the presentation of acute illness be different in the elderly?

They may have fewer symptoms
Don't report symptoms because they assume it is from old age

77

What is the SPIKES protocol?

Steps for telling bad news
Set up interview
Perception
Invitation for information
Knowledge
Emotion and empathy
Strategy and summary