Flashcards in Final Exam Deck (77):
What is the definition of complementary and alternative medicine?
A group of diverse medicine or practices that are not generally considered conventional medicine
What percent of people using CAM do not inform their doctors about it?
What are examples of energy therapies?
What are examples of biologically based CAM?
What are examples of manipulative and body based therapies?
What are examples of mind-body interventions?
What are examples of alternative medical systems?
What are the most commonly ailments treated with CAM?
What is the common theme among patients that use alternative therapies?
Their clinicians didn't listen to them
What are the different learning styles?
Aural - auditory
What does it mean to be a context specific multimodal learner?
Learners choose a single mode to suit the occasion or situation
What is important to know about the adult learner style?
Problem centered/oriented - seek solutions to help them in the future
Skeptical of new info
Seeks info that applies to their needs
Accepts responsibility for learning
What is important to know about the youth learner style?
Subject oriented - complete task
Future oriented - learn because it is required
Dependent on adults for direction
Accepts new info
Seeks info for unclear future
Dependent on others to design their learning
What are the four parts of patient education?
Convey the information
Check for understanding
What needs to be done during the enhance memory stage of patient education?
Write down the instructions for the patient
Provide other instructional material
Refer patient to reputable website
What is health literacy?
Ability to read and perform numerical tasks required to function in the health care environment
What are the health literacy facts for adults in the US?
Most read between an 8th and 9th grade level
50% are unable to understand preprinted health care material
21%-23% read at the 5th grade level or lower
What are the consequences of patient's having inadequate health literacy?
Patients may not return for follow up
Have difficulty controlling chronic illness
Less likely to understand HPDP
What are some signs that someone may have a low health literacy?
Asking staff for help
Bringing someone else to read
Inability to keep appointments
Postponing decision making
What tool is used to assess health literacy?
What are the six steps to enhance understanding?
Limit amount of information given
Be respectful, caring and sensitive
What is the definition of conseling?
Act of exchanging opinions and ideas
Something that provides direction or advice
What are some examples of problem behaviors?
What are some reasons patients don't follow their clinician's instructions?
Personality interferes with cooperation
Denial prevents cooperation
Cognitive - patient doesn't understand why it needs to be done
Culture and beliefs - beliefs about the illness interfere
What are the five A's to initiating a discussion about problem behaviors?
Assess readiness to change
What are the five R's of motivational interviewing?
What is the definition of culture?
Integrated pattern of learned beliefs and behaviors that can be shared among groups
What is the definition of ethnicity?
Represents social groups with a shared history, sense of identity, geography and cultural roots
What is the definition of race?
A geographic human population distinguished by physical characteristics
What is the definition of a stereotype?
Generalizations about a group of people that a defined set of characteristics is given to
What is the definition of prejudice?
Preconceived judgement or opinion
What are values?
Standards we use to measure our own and others beliefs and behaviors
What are the three skills of cultural communication?
Curiosity - ask questions about culture
What are the four E's of dealing with underserved populations?
What is the definition of social determinants?
Conditions in which people live, work and play in
What are different examples of social determinants?
Health care system
What are the four impactful factors on risk of premature death?
Individual behavior (40%)
Social and environmental factors (20%)
Health care (10%)
What are the goals of healthy people 2020?
Promote quality of life
Create environments that promote good health
Achieve health equality
Make everyone healthier
What is REACH?
A program designed to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities
Who is the audience for a soap note?
What do the different letters in SOAP stand for?
What does the subjective portion of a SOAP note contain?
What does the objective portion of a soap note contain?
Physical exam findings organized by body systems
Lab results and findings from today
In what order is observed information documented?
From head to toe
What does the assessment portion of a SOAP note contain?
What does the plan portion of a SOAP note contain?
New testing ordered
Patient education items
What is the order for listing medication?
What are some different kinds of hospital charts?
What does an operative note entail?
Brief hand-written form done immediately after surgery
PA can write
PA can not write full operative report
What is the difference between elopement and AMA?
Elopement - patient can not be found
AMA - patient said they were leaving against medical advisement
How long should hands be rubbed together when washing hands?
What percent alcohol must an antibacterial be to be useful?
What are the different vital signs?
What is the normal range for pulse?
60 - 80 bpm at rest
What is the normal range for temperature?
97.8 - 99.1
98.6 is average or 37.0 C
What is the normal range for breathing rate?
12 to 18 bpm
What is normal blood pressure?
120 / 80 mm Hg
What are the tools needed to gather vital signs?
Watch displaying seconds
What are the general considerations when obtaining vital signs?
No alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, or vigorous exercise within 30 minutes of exam
Seated with both feet on ground and back supported
Room should be quiet and patient comfortable
What does febrile mean?
What temperature is considered medically significant for a fever?
When should a rectal temperature be obtained?
When accurate temp needed
What is tachycardia?
Fast heart rate
Greater than 100 bmp
What is bradycardia?
Slow heart rate
Less than 60 bpm
Where are the different locations that a pulse can be taken?
What is the normal respiration rate for a newborn?
44 breaths per minute
What are the different respiration abnormalities?
Tachypnea - rapid shallow
Hyperpnea - rapid, deep
What is systolic blood pressure?
Just after the heart beats
What is diastolic blood pressure?
Just before the heart beats
What are the five phases of korotkoff sounds?
Phase 1 - sharp thuds, start at systolic
Phase 2 - blowing sound, auscultatory gap
Phase 3 - crisp thud
Phase 4 - sounds become muffled
Phase 5 - end of sounds
What is the auscultatory gap?
Silent interval between systolic and diastolic pressure
Associated with arterial stiffness
What are the different categories of blood pressure?
Normal - less than 120 and 80
Pre-hypertension - 120-139 or 80-89
Stage 1 - 140-159 or 90-99
Stage 2 - greater than 160 or 100
How is BMI calculated?
Weight in Kg divided by height in meters squared
What are the CAGE questions?
Used for drinking
Annoyed by criticism
Guilty about drinking
What are the five P's of sex?
Past history of STI
Why may the presentation of acute illness be different in the elderly?
They may have fewer symptoms
Don't report symptoms because they assume it is from old age